Planet Earth Weekly

Climate Change and Renewable Energy: Saving Our Planet for Future Generations

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Gothenburg Sweden: Providing Sustainability through Green Bonds

Gothenburg, Sweden

Build sustainably with green bonds.

“Local governments wield significant influence and authority that can drive environmental sustainability within their jurisdictions.”

By Linn Smith

August 6, 2017—–In the late 19th century Gothenburg developed into an industrial city. In 1987 the Minister of the Environment called parts of the city, “hell’s waiting room” which described the environment for the industrial part of the city, dirty and polluted. Chemicals were escaping into the environment and appearing in animals, fish and mother’s milk, increasing cancer risks and lowering the immune system of infants. This was the Gothenburg of yesterday!

From Industrial City to Climate Leader

Today, Gothenburg has transitioned from industrial city to a world climate leader. In 2013, it became one of the first cities in the world to issue Green Bonds. 

Bonds allow the public to invest sums of money. When a person purchases a bond they lend money to the issuer of the bond, in this case, the city of Gothenburg. In return investors are paid a specific interest rate. 

Green bonds are linked to solving our climate change disaster by providing the money necessary for a community to build sustainably. They are earmarked for environmental projects.

Gothenburg, Sweden

Go Green with Green Bonds

Building Sustainably with Green Bonds

Gothenburg offers Green Bonds to the public, which allows the city to borrow money from investors. With this money the city creates climate change projects that allow a transition from a polluted city to one of low carbon emissions and climate-resilient growth. Without the Green Bonds Gothenburg would have struggled with decisions on funding schools and daycare or moving the city toward sustainability.

Gothenburg, Sweden

Gothenburg goes green with Green Bonds

Projects Funded by Green Bonds

Some of the projects funded by Green Bonds are:

• Large scale production of biogas, providing high efficiency in production and recycling of waste heat for district heating and electricity.
• Electric cars for city and companies, with 100% electric cars in the city fleet.
• Energy efficient traffic lights
• Sustainable housing. These buildings use green electricity. Estimation shows that the sustainable housing built so far will avoid 50-60 tons of Co2
emissions in the atmosphere annually.
• Tree planting. 1710 trees have been planted since the projects funded by Green Bonds started, with a focus on a green cityscape, which effects the
urban air quality and temperatures of nearby buildings.(See
• Sustainable transportation. Improvements to the city’s bicycle infrastructure. The city offers 1,000 bikes with 69 stations in the city to leave
your bike. You can pick up a bike, ride it to your destination and drop it off at the nearest station.
• A sustainable airport. All energy at the Gothenburg airport comes from renewable sources. Heat is generated by biomass boilers. There are also
charging stations for electric cars. Take off fees for airplanes are reduced for those with lower emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. 75%
of the airport shuttle buses run on RME, a biofuel made from rapeseed (related to canola oil.)
• The city’s SJ trains run entirely on renewable electricity from wind and hydro power.
• A sustainable port. Gothenburg is a coastal city. Ferries and ships which are docked in Gothenburg are encouraged to connect to an onshore power
supply, which is a source of clean energy. “Providing an onshore power supply for vessels at berth can result in significant environmental gains.
Carbon dioxide emission decrease substantially and emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitric oxide are reduced to a minimum. Onshore connections also
provide a quieter environment and cleaner working conditions.”
• The largest ultrafilter built in Scandinavia. City water is treated by ultrafilter to assure the highest quality of drinking water for its citizens.

Linking Investments to Green Projects

Green Bond investing has led to greater interest by citizens in the environment, plus it creates a link between investments and speeding up green projects. 

Other cities are following suit. Toronto issued Green Bonds to finance a heat, power and cooling solar plant. Johannesburg just issued green bonds to finance green projects that will reduce greenhouse emissions and contribute to a sustainable city.

The California Sustainability Alliance said it well. “Local governments wield significant influence and authority that can drive environmental sustainability within their jurisdictions” and further influence the global greening of our planet!

Gothenburg-Green Bonds

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Grameen Shakti: One of The World’s Fastest Growing Renewable Energy Companies

Renewables in Bangladesh

Shakti provides solar for rural areas.

“Sustainable Energy: Entrepreneurial companies like Shakti are proving we can do far better than business as usual.”

By Linn Smith

February 10, 2017—-Founded in 1996 in Bangladesh, Grameen Shakti has installed over 5 million solar home systems and created over 100,000 clean energy jobs. Grameen Shakti was set up as a not-for-profit in 1996 to bring modern energy services to households, by providing both energy technology (solar-home-systems for electricity, improved stoves and biogas for cooking) and affordable finance, at a local level.

Renewable Energy

Shakti provides solar for small businesses.

Solar in Rural Bangladesh

In Bangledesh 80% of the population lives in rural areas, which is where Grameen Shakti gets its name—translation is “rural energy”. Nearly half of rural Bangladesh becomes islands during the rainy season as snow melts in the Himalayas, rushing through the countryside to the Indian Ocean. Income varies among the populations with many people finding solar out of reach because of low income. Obtaining solar would equal the entirety of several months wages for some people.

Grameen Shakti

Solar power is provided for rural Bangladesh.

Creating Rural Supply Chains for Solar

Shakti focuses its solar energy towards what the customer needs, and makes plans with the rural people to pay for it with very affordable loans. In an article by Nancy Wimmer, director of microSOLAR, she states, “Shakti meets this challenge by creating rural supply chains and after-sales service. Its engineers and technicians live, work and are trained on the job in the villages. They become part of the community, keep in close contact with their customers, and make sure the solar systems are in good repair and running properly. If there is a problem, Shakti is on site to solve it – even in times of disaster. Shakti sent young, motivated engineers into the hinterland to set up its first branches. They won the trust of the villagers, trained village technicians, managed all financing, solar installations and maintenance. This laid the groundwork for Shakti’s quality service and steady growth, but it took years to develop.” Shakti now has 1500 branch offices in every district of Bangledesh, and has trained mostly women as engineers.

Grameen Shakti

Shakti provides Bangladesh with solar power.

Solar and Biogas: Creating Clean Energy

Today Grameen Shakti has reached nearly 8 million rural dwellers, with not only solar but also biogas plants, which are produced by the breakdown of organic matter such as agricultural waste, manure sewage or food waste. It has also provided over 600,000 energy efficient cook stoves to rural areas.

Wimmer also states, “There are no silver bullets for solving the many problems facing traditional rural societies, but entrepreneurial companies like Shakti are proving we can do far better than business as usual. Shakti succeeds in such a tough business because it has found a way to provide affordable services and financing to a million village customers with microcredit.”

Shakti: Moving Towards a Low Carbon Vison

Shakti is a winner of the Ashden award, which supports sustainable energy trailblazers that focus on a world where everyone has access to affordable, clean energy. The Ashden awards recipients are encouraged to move closer towards a low carbon vision through tangible, powerful examples to inspire others to act by providing the winners finance, publicity, and research.

Grameen Shakti: Doing what it can, where it can to create a healthier planet!

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Technology Turns Plastic Back to Oil

Plastic in our oceans threaten marine life.

The Plastic Ocean Dump

One solution, besides convincing everyone to stop buying anymore petroleum based plastic, is to turn plastic back to oil

By Linn Smith

April 28, 2014—Doing research for my article “Plastics and Bioplastics: What you need to know” peaked an interest in how plastics are converted back to oil–oil that could power cars. In this article I quoted a study from Columbia University’s Earth Engineering Center, “The amount of energy contained in the millions of tons of plastic in the U.S. landfills is equivalent to 36.7 million tons of coal, 139 million barrels of oil or 738 billion cubic ft of natural gas. If the plastic was recovered and converted into liquid fuel, it would power all the cars in Los Angeles for a year–and the fact is, there is now technology to do it!”

So, being curious, I researched this technology– turning plastic back to oil and this is what I discovered. The technical name for turning plastic back to oil is Thermal Depolymerization or TDP, which is a process that uses waste products, such as plastics, to turn into crude oil. According to Wikepedia, “It mimics the natural geological processes thought to be involved in the production of fossil fuels. Under pressure and heat, long chain ploymers of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon decompose into short-chain pretroleum hydorcarbon.

A Finite Amount of Oil

K. King Hubbert, an American Geologist, predicted in 1956 that there would be a peak in oil production due to a finite amount of oil in the earth and the millions of years it takes to form. Many believe we have reached this peak. In an article by Princeton’s, Kenneth S. Deffeyes, he states, “We all have to place our bets, doing nothing is equivalent to betting against Hubbert!” Doing nothing is equivalent to watching our earth destruct and handing it to the next generation while watching. And, even worse, criticizing those that are trying to move toward creating a healthier environment–or just giving up altogether! All avenues need to be explored in saving our earth. Do what we can, when we can, however we can!

Eliminating plastic is one way to save our planet. Petroleum based plastics may take up to a 1,000 years to decompose in landfills, while leaking pollutants into our soil and water, not to mention the dump in our oceans where islands of plastic are floating–appoximately 100 million tons! Who cares, right? Out of site, out of mind?

Turning plastic back to oil can help eliminate our plastic crisis

Turning Plastic back to oil.


There is a move towards bioplastics, as stated in Planet Earth Weekly article, “Plastics and Bioplastics: What You Need to Know”. Today researchers are quickly working with alternatives such as vegetable oils, corn starch, pea starch and chitin from shrimp, crab and oyster shells to replace the petroleum used in today’s plastics. These products breakdown in a short time, plus add nutrients to the soil in the process of decomposing.

But in the meantime, there is plastic. Plastic that present inhabitants of the earth take for granted–the fastest growing component of garbage! What to do while transitioning to bioplastics? What to do with all that plastic that is still being manufactured from petroleum and will likely, if something isn’t done, be taking up space in our landfills for thousands of years and destroying our oceans?

Turning Plastics Back to Oil

One solution, besides convincing everyone to stop buying anymore petroleum based plastic, is to turn  plastic back to oil. Many are doing just that! There are backyard scientists that have set up their own refineries in yards and garages. If you’re interested, search YouTube videos. There are many that will direct you on methods to turn plastic to oil on a small scale, using mostly recycled materials.


Several larger companies are in the business of turning plastic to oil and retailing the processing machines to do it. One such company is Plastics2oil, a U.S. based company in Niagra Falls, NY. Founded by John Bordynuik in 2009, who first created a desktop unit, this company has been serving the public since 2011. Mr. Bordynuik states, “When there have been attempts in the past to make fuel from plastic, it’s been lowgrade. In our case, we’re making highly refined, consistent fuel that’s within specification of any standard fuel.” This company’s processor claims to produce fuel that needs no further processing. It’s not an alternative fuel but the real thing! Plastic2oil has processed more than 8 million pounds of waste and produced 700,000 gallons of fuel, selling mostly to large industries. In 2015 the company shifted from producing and selling the fuel to also supplying the processors that turn plastic into fuel. They also do monitoring and maintance of their machines. These processors use natural gas to start-up and, once running, use their own fuels created from the plastic-to-oil process.


Another company is Blest.Co.Ltd, a company in Japan with a U.S./Canada/South American branch called E-N-ergy. Blest sells a B-240 processor, the smallest machine which processes 221 pounds of plastic per hour and weights about 2,000 pounds. It claims to process 528 pounds of plastic in 24 hours. with an output of 64.8 gallons per day. This processor can run off of a generator or alternative energy sources. The plastic needs to be granulated or shredded to put in the machine and creates less than 1% waste in the form of ash which is non-hazardous.The oil produced by the B-240 processor can be used in generators, boilers, ect and requires further refining to be used as gasoline. The Bor-20 processor refines it to gasoline. The Blest machines use microwave radio waves to break down the plastic.

So, until we can eliminate petroleum based plastics, these processors are one more step in creating a lasting, healthy environment in which to live and raise our children and grandchildren!

Creating a Healthy Planet One Step at a Time


Zero Net Energy and Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings

These buildings usually produce enough energy to put back into the grid.

Zero Net Energy buildings do not increase greenhouse gases.

Renewable energy makes use of naturally occurring and inexhaustible resources, as opposed to fossil fuels which take millions of years to form in our earth.

By Linn Smith

February 11, 2015—Most conventional buildings use fossil fuels for heating and electricity, emitting carbon dioxide and other greenhouses gases into the atmosphere, which perpetuate climate change. A zero-energy building or zero net energy-ZNE, is a building that consumes about as much renewable energy as is created on its site. These residential or commercial buildings can get energy from the grid and return an equal amount to the grid, therefore, even though using some fossil fuels when renewables aren’t available, they make up for their use by placing the excess renewable energy back into the grid for others to use, thus classifying it as a ZNE building. As yet, there is no economical means to store excess energy on site, but this will be coming in the not so distant future, as the manifestation of ZNE buildings has moved from the concept stage of several years ago to current mainstream reality. Buildings are currently being constructed that minimize energy requirements and have renewable energy systems on site that meet these minimal energy requirements.

Zero Net Energy by 2030

According to an article by the National Institute of Building Sciences, Executive Order 13514, “requires all new Federal buildings that are entering the planning process in 2020 or thereafter be designed to a achieve zero-net-energy by 2030 and require that 15% of the existing buildings over 5,000 sq. ft. meet the High Performance and Sustainable requirements by 2015, with annual progress towards 100% conformance.”

Using Renewables vs. Fossil Fuels

Building with renewable energy may consist of solar, solar water heaters, biofuels or wind turbines, whatever is most cost effective for the area. Renewable energy makes use of naturally occurring and inexhaustible resources, as opposed to fossil fuels which take millions of years to form in our earth. Today, these fossil fuels are being using faster than they can form, therefore, they are called exhaustible. Most Net Zero buildings are still connected to the electrical grid, which allows for traditional sources of energy, i.e. coal and natural gas, to be used when renewable energy can’t meet the heating and electrical needs of a building.

A Zero Energy Buildings are gaining in popularity and importance

New technology makes it possible to construct low energy or zero energy buildings.

Why are builders and architects moving in the direction of Zero Net Energy? According to NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) It is estimated that traditional buildings, commercial and residential, consume up to 40% of the energy used in the U.S. for heating, and approximately 70% of the energy in the U.S. for electricity, a significant contribution to greenhouse gases building up around our planet! With approximately 80 billion sq.ft. of commercial space in the U.S. requiring heat, electricity and/or air conditioning, it is necessary to start breaking our dependence on fossil fuels and look to a future dependent on renewables.

Embodied Energy

To lesson future environmental impact, the embodied energy of the building material must be considered before construction. Embodied energy is the, “sum of all the energy required to produce any goods or services, considered as if that energy was incorporated or embodied in the product itself.” This means comparing the amount of energy it takes to produce the product with the amount of energy the product will save over time. To obtain the embodied energy of a material, long-term calculation of energy use must be considered in extraction, transporting the materials, manufacturing, assembling, installing and in, our modern world, destroying the building when it is no longer of use, and disposing of the materials. It must be asked: What is the life cycle and environmental impact of the materials used in construction? Will they contribute to or reduce global warming?

Building with Reclaimed Materials

Another consideration in building may be the use of reclaimed materials. Buying reclaimed, or used materials, such as doors, windows, ect. can not only save up to 40-60% of the building cost, but can also be a greener way of building or remodeling. Instead of Home Depot, look at other options, such as Habitat for Humanity Restore, Craigslist or supplies from buildings being demolished near you. A website called, will make connections for you by networking in your area for what you need, finding materials that will meet your project’s certification standards. Also, the website,, will inform you about courses in building zero net homes and communities.

Here’s a comment on an article I recently read, ” Don’t forget that some people have to have the ‘latest up to datest’ in everything, like those who buy new cars every year. It doesn’t mean something was wrong with the old!”,— or that Home Depot is the answer to all your building needs!

“What if climate change is a big hoax and we create a better planet for nothing?”


100% Renewables for Burlington, Vermont? Well, Almost!

Working toward 100% renewables

Working Toward Renewable Energy

“Burlington Electric and the Co-op are front-runners in a movement across the country, as governments and businesses seek to liberate themselves from using power produced by environmentally harmful fossil fuels.”

By Linn Smith

January 21, 2015—While searching the latest on renewables, I came across an article that caught my attention, “Burlington, Vermont Goes All in with 100% Renewables.” I decided to report on this town of 42,000 because, even though 100% might be stretching the truth a bit, it is a town that has the desire to move forward in saving our environment. Maybe it’s not all the way there–yet, but this town is definitely a front runner in renewable energy!

Burlington and the Washington Electric Co-op

Burlington is hometown to Ben and Jerrys (yes, that Ben and Jerrys!) and is the largest city in Vermont. Burlington recently purchased a hydroelectric facility on the Winooski River which allows it to get 1/3 of its power from the hydroelectric plant, along with producing electricity from biomass (burning of wood chips) and wind.

Burlington Electric joined the Washington Electric Co-op recently, which has about 11,000 members, who have reportedly reached their 100% renewable energy goal. This co-op started in 1939 with farm people getting together at meetings and talking about bringing power to their community. In 2012, the members voted to close the Vermont Yankee nuclear plant. Today, they cover approximately 3,000 square miles and are committed to “providing energy from clean and renewable sources, and helping members use energy efficiently and educating its members in the use of renewable power.”

Recently, the coop changed to a smart grid, installing a computer chip inside member’s electric meters. This computer chip tells the central utilities company where and why a power outage takes place. Also, if members choose, they can see the same data the utilities has access to. “By logging into their individual accounts they can see their records with an hourly bar graph of how much power a member’s home is using. This provides a starting point for coop members to begin reducing their power consumption and lower their electric bills.”

Vermont: 90% by 2050

The state of Vermont’s goal is to get 90% of the state’s electricity, heating and transportation energy from renewable resources by 2050, and the Washington Electric Co-op and Burlington are currently moving beyond the state’s goal saying, “We will continue to treat the environment with utmost respect and continue to influence decisions and public policy that enhance environmental quality, the use of renewable resources and the sustainability.”

But when the wind isn’t blowing and the rivers are low, Burlington will buy power from traditional sources (fossil fuels), offsetting the use of fossil fuels by selling their extra renewable generated power to other utility companies. To some the 100% renewable energy claim is a matter of bookkeeping, but to others it is a means of spreading the use of clean energy. What matters is this: Burlington and its citizens want to further efforts to save the planet from what is coming down the pipeline…climate change!

The Boston Globe says, “Burlington Electric and the Co-op are front-runners in a movement across the country, as governments and businesses seek to liberate themselves from using power produced by environmentally harmful fossil fuels.”

A movement away from fossil fuels


Looking Back at Renewable Energy in 2014

Turbines have increased in size.

Advancements in wind power have made energy less expensive.

The remaining solid waste will be used to make biofuels. They’re putting contaminated water in and taking out valuable metals, clean water and producing fuel.”

By Linn Smith

January 3, 2015—To start the new year off on a positive note, let’s look back at seven advancements in renewable energy in 2014:

1. Wind power capacity has increased. Wind turbines have become more powerful, more efficient and more affordable. The increased size of the rotors on the wind turbine has raised the turbine’s capacity to generate electricity. By increasing the area of the rotors, from 70 to 100 meters, they can generate more energy at lower wind speeds

2. New research in nanostructure-based technology will make it more efficient for energy conversion in photovoltaic solar cells. The nano materials will allow more light to be trapped for future energy.

3. Advancements in renewable energy storage using quinone molecules, as those found in rhubarb, can be used in flow batteries at 1/3 the cost. (See the Planet Earth Weekly article titled, “The Organic Megaflow Battery.”)

4. A company called Heliateck, based in Dresden, Germany, is a leading company in the production of organic solar film. They have developed tinted glass that can be used on car roofs to generate energy. Also, architectural glass panels and windows incorporating HeliaFilm enable electricity to be generated at very low light levels with a level of high efficiency. “At the moment, Heliatek is making the transition from pure technology development to industrial manufacturing….to bring mass-produced organic solar films.”

In the process, biofuel is made.

Researchers are using algae to clean up contaminated water.

5. A Cornish tin mine in Cornwall, England, which closed in 1992, is using algae to clean up the heavy metals in the toxic water from the mine, while at the same time producing biofuel. This is in the very early stage of development. Researchers are “Converting the algae into a solid form which heavy metals can be extracted and recycled for use in the electronics industry. The remaining solid waste will be used to make biofuels. They’re putting contaminated water in and taking out valuable metals, clean water and producing fuel.”

6. For a twenty-four hour period in 2014, Germany generated almost 75% of its electricity from renewables. Earlier in 2014, renewables produced 27% of the country’s electricity. “Energiewende” for Germany means energy transformation, which has a goal of powering Germany entirely by renewables by 2050. Even though the transition is met by many challenges, the majority of Germany’s population support the change to renewables.

7. Researchers have advanced in the technology of making biofuels from wet farm waste, including corn husks, tomato vines and manure. Dry farm waste, such as wood chips, is much easier to turn into biofuels, as it doesn’t break down on the way to transformation like wet waste. Researchers at the Bio-Renewable Innovation Lab (BRIL) say, “We are taking what is now a net-negative resource in farm waste, which farmers have to pay to remove, and providing an opportunity for them to make money and help the environment.” It’s a win-win partnership!

So, onward into 2015! Let’s see what it brings in advancements toward a cleaner planet!


The Science of 350: How Much CO2 is in Our Atmosphere?

The Science Of 350 and the Growing amount of CO2

Every year data measures a greater amount of CO2 in our atmosphere.

By Lin Smith

The Safe Limit of CO2 for Humanity

January 20, 2014-–The science of 350: Scientists say that 350 parts per million of CO2 in our atmosphere is the safe limit, and unless we rapidly return to below 350 ppm this century, we risk reaching tipping points and irreversible impacts, such as the continued melting of the Greenland ice sheet and major methane releases from increased permafrost melt.

Up until about 200 years ago our atmosphere contained about 275 parts per million of carbon dioxide, which gave human beings the environment necessary to exist. It provided us with just enough warmth on Earth–not too hot, not too cold! Parts per million (ppm) is  a way of measuring the concentration of different gases. It means the ratio of the number of carbon dioxide molecules to all of the molecules in the atmosphere.

Atmospheric CO2 and the Industrial Revolution

Beginning in 18th century, people began to burn coal, gas, and oil to produce energy and goods. This was the Industrial Revolution of Britain, Europe, and the U.S. During this time period, CO2 began to rise in our atmosphere. The production of goods transitioned from hand made to machine made. The transition also included changing from wood and other biofuels to coal.

What is a Biofuel?

A biofuel means a fuel derived directly from living matter, such as wood, corn, ect. The CO2 released from wood and other biofuels has minimal impact on greenhouse gases. When we burn wood and other biofuels, the energy the biofuels took from the sun for photosynthesis, (remember your science classes?) is released back into the atmosphere. It takes and gives back about the same amount, thus maintaining the 275 ppm of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere-just enough for us to exist –comfortably, up until now! When we burn fossil fuels, such as coal and oil, we put more CO2 in the atmosphere than is used by earth’s vegetation. The earth then warms and that warmth is absorbed by the CO2, which does not allow it to escape into space. When CO2 is too high, climate change occurs, as it is doing today.

Reliance on Fossil Fuels

Many activities we do every day, like turning the lights on, cooking food, or heating and cooling our homes, rely on these fossil fuel energy sources that emit carbon dioxide, trapping gasses into the atmosphere. We’re taking millions of years worth of carbon, stored beneath the earth as fossil fuels, and releasing it into the atmosphere. The planet now has above 400 parts per million of CO2, and the number is rising every year. That is more than this planet has seen in its history! Scientists say the highest safe level of CO2 is 350 parts per million. This is the safety zone for planet earth!

Preserving Our Planet

James Hansen, of NASA, says if we wish to preserve a planet similar to that we are inhabiting, we need to reduce the CO2 above 400ppm to, at most, 350ppm. We need to stop taking carbon (coal) out of the ground and putting it in the air. We need to start using solar and wind and other sources of renewable energy. If we do this, then the earth’s soils and forests will slowly cycle some of the extra carbon out of the atmosphere and eventually CO2 concentrations will return to a safe level. By doing this we could go back to the 350 by 2050. But the longer we remain in the danger zone, above 350, the more likely that we will see disastrous and irreversible climate impacts!

Cutting Fossil Fuels

1. Recycle your waste. Many household wastes, including most plastics, are made from fossil fuels. Most prepackaged foods and goods use fossil fuels for their production and disposal. Try to reduce your overall consumption of things you don’t really need, and recycle everything!
2. Drive less, walk, cycle, take public transportation, or drive a hybrid vehicle. I know hybrid vehicles aren’t an economic choice  for many people, but there are a growing number of older hybrids on the market, and if you weigh the cost of purchasing one with the amount you could save in gas, it may be a good choice, for you and the environment. An older Prius may get 60 mpg, and, no, the batteries aren’t wearing out like predicted.
3. Cut your household power consumption, turn off lights when not in use. Most of the electricity in your house is likely to come from coal-fired power stations, not renewables. Insulate your home, use a ceiling fan instead of air conditioning, hang your clothes instead of tumble dry. I know–who has clothes lines anymore?? BUT they can be inexpensively installed in the back yard–just like the old days! Just put ‘em back!
4. Install a solar panel. They are getting less expensive to install and will save you money in the long run.

The Science of 350 states we must lower the CO2 in our atmosphere, even doing something small will be a start towards saving our planet for future generations!