Planet Earth Weekly

Climate Change and Renewable Energy: Saving Our Planet for Future Generations


Leave a comment

A Visit to Biosphere 2

“On a day by day basis I was very aware that the Biosphere, the plants, the algae in there, were providing me with my oxygen.”

By Linn Smith

January 13, 2018—–A visit to Biosphere 2 last week, which is the world’s largest science laboratory, revealed a site of many experiments, both past and present. Biosphere 1 is our Planet Earth. Biosphere 2, located in the desert of Arizona, emulates our planet, containing a rainforest, ocean, grasslands, desert and other earth replications. The mini earth also contains human living quarters and an agricultural area for growing food.
Biosphere 2 according to Wikipedia, “was originally meant to demonstrate the viability of closed ecological systems to support and maintain human life in outer space. It was designed to explore the web of interactions within life systems in a structure with different areas based on various biological biomes.”

Life in Biosphere 2

In the 1990’s, eight people were sealed inside of Biosphere 2 for two years. The experiment was to study if conditions on earth could possibly be emulated and contained for living elsewhere—possibly the moon.

One participant, Jane Poynter, said, “We were recycling all our water, all of our air, and growing all our food. Nothing was going in or out. The Biosphere was truly hermetically sealed.” The experiment eventually revealed that the participants couldn’t get enough oxygen or calories, eating their emergency food supplies and getting oxygen injections.

When the experiment ended Poynter stated, “I walked out and the next morning saw a gigantic pile of garbage. We hadn’t had any garbage in the Biosphere, we recycled everything. And then you go to a store to buy stuff, and you’re like ‘holy cow, look at this!’ There’s not only tomato ketchup, there’s 17 brands of it! It’s the abundance of this world that we all take for granted which became so apparent!”

Interdependency of our Planet

Today, Poynter tries to live her life with as low a carbon footprint as possible. Life inside the Biosphere also taught her the value of food. “Today we pick up the phone and order a pizza, but in the Biosphere we had to plant the wheat, which would take about 120 days to grow, harvest it, grind it, turn it into flour and make dough. To get the cheese our goats had to be artificially inseminated and have babies to get our milk!” Similar to what life was like before the early 1900’s!

Even though the experiment failed in some areas, not only lack of food and oxygen, but also warring factions between participants, Poynter states, “On a day by day basis I was very aware that the Biosphere, the plants, the algae in there, were providing me with my oxygen, and I was providing them with their carbon dioxide. It was incredibly interdependent. It’s like that on Planet Earth, but it’s so big you don’t realize it, or think about it.”

Is it time to start thinking of where our oxygen comes from? How interdependent life is? The causes of extreme weather conditions and what our carbon footprint looks like? Will future generations lack food and oxygen? It’s time to look at the truth and the increasing data collected by scientists that will predict how comfortable future generations will be when occupying Planet Earth.

Advertisements


Leave a comment

The Climate of Hope: A Review

Climate Chane

Cities move forward to save our planet

“How Cities, Businesses, And Citizens Can Save the Planet, by Michael Bloomberg and Carl Pope. St Martin’s Press, NY 2017”

By Dr. John J. Hidore

December 21, 2017—–This book is the product of two individuals with very different backgrounds but with a common objective. That objective, to provide some data and suggestions for slowing or halting climate change and its consequences. They each are vastly experienced in dealing with climate change. In this book they present a positive future for climate change and some solutions for solving the problem of the rapidly warming planet.

City of Hope

Michael Bloomberg

About the Authors

Michael Bloomberg is a former mayor of New York city.  Bloomberg discusses the role cities play in greenhouse gas emissions and why they must and can lead the way to lower emissions.  At the present time the majority of the global population lives in urban areas. By 2050 it is estimated that 75% of all people on the planet will live in cities.

Carl Pope is an internationally known leader in the effort to protect the environment. Early in his career he served in the Peace Corps in India. On returning to the United States Pope began working as a lobbyist for the Clean Air Act. The primary purpose of the act was to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 

Oil was gradually replacing coal as the overall primary fuel. It was not until 2016 that oil passed coal as the major source of greenhouse gas emissions. Gasoline and diesel oil were the primary fuel for vehicles and still are today. However natural gas, hydrogen and electricity have been added to the mix.

Pope states that we are now on the springboard of using electricity for vehicle power. In addition to his work on the Clean Air Act, Pope also served as executive director of the Sierra Club for ten years.

Michael Bloomberg

Cities move forward to stop climate change.

The Question of Climate Change

The two men point out that the climate of the planet has been changing for four and a half billion years. However, it is hard to define climate change because numerical data on climate change is available for less than two centuries. A major question is how far back must we go to be certain that things are different now than in the past.

Another question is the role of the human species in climate change. People have been changing the natural environment for thousands of years, or perhaps longer. It has only been since 1960 that burning fossil fuels began contributing more greenhouse gases to the atmosphere than agriculture and deforestation.

The authors believe that climate change can be stopped. The way to do it is for people, businesses, and cities to take the power available to them to change the way things are done. 

These groups can show the world how to make the changes necessary, to not only stop climate change, but generally make the world a better place to live. This can be done by changing the way the economic markets work. Pope and Bloomberg suggest a variety of changes that can and should be made.

Cities and the People, Not Governments, Will Take the Lead

Mr. Bloomberg suggests the cities of the world will be the decision makers in reducing global warming and climate change. The simple reason? They must deal with many aspects of climate change on a day to day basis. Cities are beginning to band together to share knowledge of how to deal with climate change. A recently formed group called the Global Covenant of Mayors now has more than 7000 members from around the world.

Another significant event that is occurring with respect to climate change is the widespread public support for taking action. Demonstrations around the world are evidence that people will act!


Leave a comment

Climate Change: Is it in your backyard yet?

Fires will threaten homes and wildlife habitat year around.”

By Linn Smith

December 9, 2017—–Many climatologists say that people won’t change their destructive habits until the effects of climate change “are in their own backyard.”

Are we there yet?

Is it in our own backyard? An example of “in my backyard” came in the form of a rattlesnake in my path several weeks ago. In Arizona, most of the snakes have slowed down and are more or less invisible starting in November. Because of unusually warm temperatures this year, the rattlers were slithering about in the paths of many unsuspecting people out for a stroll. 

As I took my dog for a walk one evening, my headlamp picked up a rattler about 6 feet ahead, stretched out and warming itself on the heated asphalt. I could have easily stepped on it if I hadn’t been paying attention. Warming temperatures are changing the habits of wildlife!

The California Fires

The fires in California in December are another example. Scientists have stated, “In the future there will be no fire season. Fires will threaten homes and wildlife habitat year around.”

According to insideclimatenews.org, climate change along with other factors are fueling the California fires by, “epic winds, dry brush and high humidity,” allowing a small ember to create a disaster.

In California high temperatures have caused a drought which has left much dry timber and underbrush vulnerable to fire. The slightest mishap, such as downed utility lines, a careless toss of a cigarette or embers from a campfire, can lead to a disaster. “As long as there’s fuel to burn, your chances of having a large fire increases when temperatures increase, it’s as simple as that,” said Park Williams, a Bioclimatologist.

Though research models don’t always agree, many studies show that if carbon emissions continue at a high level, extreme weather resulting in fires, flooding and hurricanes will continue to increase rapidly in strength and frequency. 

Now is the time to do your part in creating a healthy planet for present and future generations.

Follow us on Facebook at: https://www.facebook.com/planetearthweekly/


Leave a comment

Factors Resulting in Long Term Climate Change

climate change

Climate Change over geological time

“Long-term climate changes are those changes over Geologic time that may persist for millions of years.”

By Dr. John J. HIdore

December 6, 2017—–Long-term climate changes are those changes over Geologic time that may persist for millions of years. The intermittent ice ages that have occurred through the span of earth history are an example. The processes which have produced these long-term changes, for the most part, also take place slowly.

Earth–Sun Relationships

Regular variations in the motion of the earth as it travels around the sun explain daily and seasonal differences in the amount of solar energy arriving at the surface. However, the angle of the earth’s axis and the distance from Earth to the sun vary over time.

The obliquity of the ecliptic: This term refers to the angle of Earth’s axis in relation to the plane in which the earth revolves around the sun. This angle is not constant. On a cycle of a period of about 41,000 years, the angle varies some 1.5° about the mean of 23.1°. If the earth’s axis were perpendicular to the plane there would be equal lengths of day and night over the globe and result in little seasonal change. If the angle were greater than 23.5 there would be greater extremes in the lengths of summer and winter days and nights and to cause distinctive changes in the distribution of Earth’s climates.

Earth’s orbital eccentricity: The earth moves around the sun in an elliptical orbit; the eccentricity of the orbit is derived by comparing the path to that of a true circle. Currently the orbit is relatively close to a circle. Over the past million years, the orbit has changed from almost circular to a distinctly oblong shape. This change influences the amount of solar radiation intercepted by the earth and modifies the dates at which the solstices and equinoxes occur.

climate change

Climate change through geological time

Distribution of Continents

One set of theories of climatic change deals with the location of continental land masses in relation to the position of the poles and the equator. Reconstructed maps for the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation (250 million years ago) and those of the most recent Pleistocene glaciation show that in both cases there was a concentration of land masses in the polar realms. However, there have been times when such a location occurred, but no glaciation resulted.

Intimately related to the idea of moving continents is the role of mountain building. As an explanation of this theory, one only has to think of the formation of snow and ice on Mt. Kilimanjaro located astride the equator. Geologists have long noted the relationship between times of extensive mountain-building periods and some of the ice ages. For example, both the Permo-Carboniferous and recent ice ages were preceded by extensive mountain-building periods.

Variation in the Oceans

Modern research in climatology is paying increasing attention to the role of the oceans in the climatic system. The oceans have received attention, providing in some cases the basis of entire theories of climatic change. Some of the ways in which the oceans influence the prevailing climates on Earth include the following:
1. Changes in the elevation of the land is a factor. A drop in sea level would increase the heights of the continents and enlarge land masses.
2. The oceans are less variable in temperature than the continents, and changes in the relative temperature of oceanic waters influence world climates. Variations in the energy storage in the oceans can occur because of changes in salinity, evaporation rates, and relative solar penetration.
3. Oceans play a significant role in the redistribution of energy over the earth’s surface. Ocean currents transport large amounts of heat, and any changes in their relative extent and direction of flow have a great impact on climate.

Extraterrestrial Impacts

At intervals throughout the history of Earth, exceptionally large objects from space have struck the earth. When these objects struck Earth, some altered the climate tremendously for short periods and in some cases for periods of thousands of years. The boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary geologic periods was approximately 65 million years ago. Much evidence now points to a large object impacting the earth at this time. It certainly altered the climate. The impact produced firestorms over the earth, destroying much of the vegetation. These same fires would have removed much of the atmospheric oxygen and added large amounts of carbon dioxide.
A huge dust cloud was raised that blocked out the sun for months causing temperatures to drop. The fires also contributed a huge cloud of soot to the atmosphere. The sustained cloud of solid particles would have greatly reduced solar radiation to the ground. Precipitation would have turned into acid rain and snow as the highly sulfurous particles combined with water particles in the atmosphere.

Other Theories

The theories presented herein are a partial representation of those that have been suggested. Other researchers have introduced ideas ranging from the possible influence of the periodic passage of the earth through an interstellar dust cloud to variations in atmospheric water vapor caused by both natural and human activities. Despite all of these ideas, there is no single theory that can account for all of the observed events; it is evident that earth’s climates result from a spectrum of causal elements.
Follow us on facebook at: https://www.facebook.com/planetearthweekly/


1 Comment

Tesla: What’s New?

Model Y Tesla

Model Y, Tesla’s car of the future.

“Elon Musk is still at the forefront as a founding father of the rapidly changing electric car industry.”

By Linn Smith
November 26, 2017—-When I happen upon a Tesla owner charging their car at a charging station, as I did recently in Trinidad, Colorado, I usually linger long enough to ask the owner his opinion of the Tesla. The responses are always similar, “Best car I ever owned,” or “Most fun car I ever had.” The people who own the Teslas are the best advertisement for these all electric vehicles. Some of the reviews I have read on line are mixed, but testaments “straight from the owner’s mouth,” have been strongly positive!

Tesla: A Review

The Tesla Model S was introduced in 2012. Several revisions in 2017 have improved the driving range per charge to between 270-335 miles. The 40-amp charger of earlier models was replaced in 2017 with a 48-amp charger, which enables a quicker charge and about 30 miles drivable time per hour of charge.

Tesla electric cars

Charging up at a station

What’s New for Tesla in 2018?

*The Model S 100D has a range of 335 miles with the ability to hit 60mph in 2.5 seconds (if you’re into speed).

The Model 3, with a base price of about $35,000, reportedly is, “Adopting a controversial plan to forgo prototype tooling (a test model design) in an effort to accelerate the launch of the Model 3.” Test drivers, journalists and financial analysts were given hands on demonstrations of the car and loved it! 

AllianceBernstein says, “We found the Model 3 to be a compelling offering, and believe it is likely to further galvanize the overall Electric Vehicle category.”

Though Tesla has struggled getting the Model 3 available to the public, it promises to be available soon. Tesla’s target of producing 5,000 Model S’s by the end of December has been pushed to March of 2018.

Tesla

All electric semi will change the way cargo is hauled across country.

The Tesla Semi

In the meantime, Musk has unveiled his electric semi-truck and Roadster sports car this week, and may unveil an SUV, Model Y soon.

Tesla will be the first user of their semi-trucks, hauling cargo between its California factory to one in Nevada. “Tesla will be the first customer for the semi. We will use our own truck to carry cargo in the U.S. between our different facilities. We have an assembly facility in California, the Gigafactory in Nevada, so we will use our trucks to carry things in-between.” This electric semi has a range of 500 miles on one charge, which is approximately the round-trip mileage of 80% of the trucking market. The price of the electric semi would compete with the sale of regular gas semis.

The Model Y (Unofficial name) will be a small SUV, which was going to be built on the Model 3 platform but is now back to the original plan in building it separate in order to bring it to market sooner. It will be a more automated production line, bringing it to market faster, as SUV’s are one of the fastest growing vehicles.

So, Elon Musk is still at the forefront as a founding father of the rapidly changing electric auto industry, with the other car manufacturers scurrying to keep pace with his Tesla company! Tesla has confronted many obstacles, but still moves ahead to combat our warming climate.

Follow us on Facebook at: https://www.facebook.com/planetearthweekly/

Tesla


2 Comments

Climate Change Over Geological Time

Glacial Ages and Climate

Climate Change Over Time

“Climate change at the present is of great consequence to most species including humans.

By Dr. John J. Hidore

November 15, 2017—-Planet Earth was formed about 4.5 billion years ago. Geologists have divided this long history of the planet into several pieces called eras. They are the Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic.

The Precambrian is the longest and each of the other three are shorter than the previous one. When considering climate change through geologic time, two aspects stand out. The first is that for most of geologic time Earth has been warmer than it is at present. How much warmer varied through time. The second feature that stands out is the intermittent ice ages when large portions of the earth were covered with ice.

Major Ice Ages

Relatively little is known about the long period of Precambrian time. Basically it was the period during which the earth cooled from its initial very hot state. The Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras encompass the rest of geologic time, about 570 million years. More evidence, and a greater variety of
evidence, is available about the environment during these eras. The climate of Earth varied widely during this time. However, it has been established that there were three known periods of glaciation in Precambrian time. They were:

Archeozoic 2250 million years ago (mya)
Early Precambrian: 950 million years ago
Late Precambrian: 750 million years ago

There were four major glaciations following that of the Precambrian era. They were:

Early Cambrian: 650 mya
Ordovician: 450 mya
Permo-Carboniferous: 350-250 mya
Pleistocene: 1.8 mya until recent time

Following the ice age at the end of the Precambrian, the earth rapidly warmed. For the remainder of the history of the earth, temperatures have averaged 5 degrees C (9°F) higher than at the present. These warmer conditions existed probably 90 percent of the time over the past 570 million years.

The Permo-carboniferous Ice Age

An ice age, called the Permo-carboniferous, began at the end of the Paleozoic Era. It began about 325 million years ago and lasted until about 250 million years ago. The South Pole was in the midst of the large land mass called Gondwanaland. Ice sheets moved over about half of this large land mass. What is now Antarctica and parts of Australia, India, Africa, and South America were covered with ice. The glaciation of each of these areas did not take place at precisely the same time, but they were all affected by the same climatic cooling. The Southern Hemisphere suffered widespread glaciation, but the Northern Hemisphere remained warm. The most appealing explanation for this situation is a different relative location of the land masses. The northern continents were nearer the equator and the southern land masses nearer the poles.

Climate Change

Climate Change over time.

The Warming of the Earth

After the glaciation in the Permo-Carboniferous ice age, the earth again entered a long period of warm conditions. The period of warmth continued through most of the Mesozoic Era and the earth was free of glaciation. Temperatures were warm and rainfall was abundant on the land masses. Even the polar regions experienced mild weather. Initially, the warmer conditions resulted from the slow migrations of the large southern hemisphere land mass to the north. This carried areas that had been glaciated into warmer climates.

The Pleistocene Ice Age

The most important single environmental event since the human species has been on earth has been the oscillation between glaciation and interglacials during the Pleistocene Epoch. The epoch represents a large change from much of the last 570 million years. This ice age is the most recent of the major cold periods to occur over the history of the planet. During the time when the ice was most extensive over Earth, temperatures averaged about 4°C (7°F ) lower than those of the present. In the northern hemisphere it was perhaps 8 to 12 °C ( 14 to 22°F) lower than current temperatures. 

There is no question but what the climate of planet earth has changed frequently, and sometimes drastically, over geologic time.

Climate Change Today

Climate change at the present is of great consequence to most species including humans. There is really no way of knowing how much change will take place in the foreseeable future nor how much is due to the activity of our species. What is known is the earth is warming rapidly at this time and that all evidence points to human activity as bearing the responsibility.

Now is the time to take international action and not only support the Paris Agreement, but take even more drastic measures to curtain the warming!

Climate Change

Follow us on Facebook at: https://www.facebook.com/planetearthweekly/


Leave a comment

Migration and Human Overpopulation

Overpopulation and violence

Overpopulation can cause world disaster.

There are a number of attributes of the human population occurring globally that indicate overpopulation and the need to limit growth”.

By Dr. John J Hidore

October 26, 2017—When the term migration comes up in conversation most people think of migration of wildlife with the seasons. For people living in the northern hemisphere, it is the migration of birds with the seasons that most often comes to mind. 

Flocks of ducks and geese moving south for the winter are common sights in some areas. The longest bird migration is that of the Arctic tern. This bird breeds in the Arctic in the summer and then flies to the Antarctic to spend the summer. The birds make a round trip of 44,000 miles.

All change is not growth

Moving Backwards

Animal Migrations

Others think of the annual migration of herds of African animals that migrate to follow the seasonal rains. The wildebeest is an example of the latter. Huge herds of these animals travel from the Serengeti in Tanzania across the Mara River into Kenya and back.

Human Migration

Humans have been migrating almost from the origin of the species. Although people in many parts of the world move in a rhythmic fashion with the seasons, human migration is not basically movement with the seasons, although some follow herds of livestock that move with the seasonal rains.

Human migration is generally applied to those people that move from one region to another on a long term or permanent basis. Often these migrants cross national borders, but many move from one part of a country to another.

Reasons For Human Migration

There are a variety of reasons that humans migrate:

1. In the past some people migrated out of curiosity. They wanted to explore. This was a viable reason why
early mankind moved about.
2. The decline of basic resources such as food or water in the homeland. There was not enough to support the
existing population, so they were searching for a more fruitful environment.
3. Some migrated to avoid the effects of natural hazards. In the 1930’s a large part of the population of New England. in the United States, fled westward to avoid the destruction caused by hurricanes. Today there is a lot of movement out of areas where recurring drought has made agriculture too great a hazard.
4. To the list must be added migration due to climate change. Migration due to climate change is not new. It has been
around for hundreds, if not thousands of years. Island people are moving to escape rising sea level.
5. Today, as in the past, people migrate to avoid violence. There was massive migration out of parts of Europe to avoid the second world war. Millions sought refuge elsewhere.

In some cases, as in Myanmar today, large numbers of people are forced to move from their homes.

overpopulation

Overpopulation and climate change creates environmental stress.

Global Migration Today

Today there is massive migration on several continents. Some of the regions and causes are:

1. Sub-Saharan Africa: Due to resource depletion, civil war, and climate change.
2. Central American: Due to civil war and poverty.
3. North America: Due to poverty and lack of opportunity in rural areas.
4. South America: Due to resource depletion and civil war.
5. In Asia: Due to resource depletion and civil war.
6. Oceania: Due to rising sea level and the increasing severity of tropical storms.
7. The Middle East: Due to war.

There are a number of attributes of the human population occurring globally that indicate overpopulation and the need to limit growth. In addition to health problems and resource depletion, current human migration must be added as a major symptom.

Planet Earth Weekly: Working for a healthy planet!


Leave a comment

Puerto Rico: Rebuilding Sustainably

Renewable Resources

 

“Building sustainably in Puerto Rico can take many different forms.” 

By Linn Smith

October 19, 2017—Even though Puerto Rico is going through a devastating time after the hurricane, it is essential that we not only meet the current needs of the people, but also think about its future….rebuilding sustainably. Areas devastated by wind and flooding must not only think about immediate needs, but consider the future way climate change may threaten vulnerable coastal areas. 

There is an agreement among scientists that our warming climate is producing larger, more aggressive hurricanes, and rising oceans are leading to stronger storm surges, destroying and flooding inland areas.

Puerto Rico: Sources of Energy

According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, Puerto Rico has some renewable solar, wind, hydropower and biomass resources, but relies primarily on imported fossil fuels to meet its energy needs, importing mostly from the U.S.

In 2016, Puerto Ricans paid more for their power than people in any other state except Hawaii, with 47% of electricity coming from petroleum, 34% from natural gas, 17% from coal and only 2% from renewable energy.

The Future of Energy in Puerto Rico

Now is the time to make decisions about Puerto Rico’s future energy needs. How will Puerto Rico get its power in the future? PREPA, the Puerto Rico Electric and Power Company, Puerto Rico’s only utility company, is mismanaged and highly in need of upgrading according to some sources. According to http://www.commondreams.org, it would be a waste to pour more money into this system. Instead, we need to invest funds into local renewables and energy efficient transportation, such as streetcars and light rail trains. 

Richard Heinberg in the article “Disaster in Puerto Rico” stated, “This is a chance to build back sustainably. People tend to maintain their status quo as long as it’s viable, but when in dire straits, they’re more likely to listen and when denial is no longer possible, people are more likely to face reality.”

Eigg renewables

Eigg uses 99% Renewable Energy

Eigg, Scottland: 99% Renewable

According to an article by David Nield, March 2017, http://www.sciencealert.com, researchers from around our planet are visiting the tiny, Scottish island of Eigg, which is using wind, solar and hydo to obtain the island’s power. This system, owned and operated by the island’s residents, has been using sustainable energy since 2009. Eigg Electric uses a combination of sustainable resources to ensure there is always energy. When back-up energy is needed, it’s supplied by several diesel generators with cables linking all the sources of energy together. Renewable energy is used 95% of the time and excess energy is stored in a bank of 100 batteries. When these batteries are full, electric heaters automatically switch on in the church and community hall so nothing is wasted. Eigg’s population has doubled since this system has been in place, but the system is still meeting the needs of the residents. The drawback is that citizens are limited to the amount of power they can use daily from the public utilities
.
Ta’u, a small island in Samoa, is also changing from diesel to renewables. Today it’s powered by 5,000 Solar City solar panels and 60 Tesla Powerpack battery storage units. The Powerpack is a massive battery, 16 Powerwall battery pods encased in a weatherproof box, that can store electricity during the day when supply is abundant and discharge it when demand goes up after the sun goes down. This system provides the island with about 99% of its needs.

Tesla solar project in Hawaii.

Tesla and the Powerpack Battery

Tesla has also built a huge solar energy plant on the island of Kauai, one of Hawaii’s main islands. This project will reduce fossil fuel by 1.6 million gallons per year. The island signed a 20 year contract with Tesla to buy solar generated electricity from solar panels installed on the island for 13.9 cents per kilowatt hour. The average price of electricity in Hawaii is 37.34 cents per kwh, the highest rate in the nation. Kauai is the first major solar/storage project for Tesla. Tesla states, “We will work with energy providers around the world seeking to overcome barriers in the way of building a sustainable, renewable energy grid of their own.”

Tesla is also in the process of shipping battery packs to Puerto Rico, but details of the project have not yet been made available. Building sustainably in Puerto Rico can take many different forms and accepting help from Tesla could be a starter.

Find us also on Facebook at: https://www.facebook.com/planetearthweekly/

Puerto Rico: Build Sustainably