Planet Earth Weekly

Climate Change and Renewable Energy: Saving Our Planet for Future Generations


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Building Sustainable Cities

Sierra Club

Sierra Club for Clean Air

“Sustainable planning must come before greed!”

By Linn Smith

I live part of the year in a rapidly growing city. I have lived in this city for 20 years, 15 years full time. In the past 5 years there has been a mass migration to this city. Traffic has come to a halt at rush hour, which now starts as early as 2:30pm and extends until early evening, accidents can hold up traffic for hours and parking spaces…forget about it! Developers of the city transit system have been involved in lawsuits with city transit, halting development in some areas for years, costing the city millions of dollars.

The High Price of No Sustainable Plan

Housing prices have tripled…. $500,000 being the price of the average home. We are diminishing the habitat of wildlife in a former mecca for bears, wildcats, moose and elk. The plan for their intrusion on us is 3 strikes you’re out. If a bear is found in a populated area 3 times it is euthanized and this is happening more and more with city sprawl….we have intruded on their space and there are severe consequences to them….for intruding in “our” space!

Pollution and air quality are rapidly declining. We are now the 12th most polluted city in our country.

Profit Before Sustainability

Well thought out planning? Jobs, yes, sustainable planning, no! Money has spoken clearly, developers and contractors have become rich. The city’s motto seems to be, “Build for those who come at any cost to the environment.” I am both amazed and disgusted to see the growth without planning. Why do I live here? I migrated here from the agricultural areas of the U.S. for a teaching job, and now my family is here.

It may be too late for this city, but my hope is that other cities will plan before sprawling unconsciously, building on every green patch of grass available without thought of the cost to our planet and the future of our survival!

building sustainably

Building sustainable cities

According to data provided by the United Nations, 68% of the world population will live in urban areas by 2050….that is approximately 2.5 billion people migrating from rural to urban areas! (This also includes projected overall growth in human population). North America currently has 82% of the population living in urban areas. Understanding these numbers is going to be critical for planning sustainable cities. Sustainable planning must come before the dollar signs shining in the eyes of contractors and developers!

What is a sustainable community?

Green, sustainable communities implement multifaceted methods of environmentally sustainable practices, changing city government to support these practices so that present and future generations can have clean, healthy environments and a planet that will continue to support humans and flora and fauna. Steps towards a green community should be outlined with measurable goals to see the growth on a continuum of ongoing sustainable practices….i.e. conditions that will not harm the environment.

Sustainable cities

Campbell’s Triangle plan

Building Green Ideas

1. Parks and Green spaces are meant to be part of a city’s health for residents, not future places for buildings to be developed.
2. Bike lanes and bridges should be separate from streets and highways.
3. Build or refurbish all government buildings to reflect the sustainable city vision.
4. Buildings will be renovated instead of torn down.
5. Comprehensive recycling and composting programs.
6. Green leadership with leaders who already live sustainably.
7. Smart energy policies.
8. Efficient public transportation.

Again, sustainable development must come before of greed!

Sustainable Cities

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Extreme Storms: The recent bomb cyclone in the United States and tropical cyclones in southeast Africa

Climate change causes severe weather.

“In all probability it is a result of climate change and indicative of things to come.”

By Dr. John J. Hidore

A Bomb Cyclone Forms in the US Midwest

A bomb cyclone is a low pressure system in which the central pressure rapidly drops by at least 24 millibars (mb) in 24 hours or less. On March 12-14 winter storm Ulmer moved over the Midwest and Southeastern United States. In Ulmer the central pressure dropped 26 mb in 16 hours. All time low pressure records were set in Colorado, Texas, and New Mexico. The central pressure dropped to 968 mb on March 13. The extreme pressure gradient in the storm created winds of 100mph or more over in Texas and New Mexico. Blizzard conditions and whiteouts occurred over a wide area. Thunderstorms and tornadoes were widespread during the storm.

An EF 1 tornado hit Dexter, NM. This was the earliest tornado ever recorded in a calendar year in the state of New Mexico. The storm produced damaging winds in Texas as well.. As the storm moved south and east over two days it spawned widespread tornadoes.

Climate change increases the likelihood of severe weather.

Tropical Cyclones in Southeastern Africa

The storm season in the Indian Ocean so far in 2019 has been extensive. There have already been more than the usual number of storms. Mozambique on the southeastern coast of Africa had not experienced a tropical cyclone since satellite monitoring of the earth began. That changed big time this spring when Cyclone Idai came ashore. It turned out to be among the most destructive weather events to occur in Africa, if not the southern hemisphere. The storm had winds measured at over 175 km/h (105 mph) as it reached shore near the port city of Beiria, Mozambique. The storm produced widespread flooding which added to the wind damage. A stretch of land 50km (30mi) long adjacent to the Buzi River was flooded. In places the flood water was six meters (19 1/2 feet ) deep. Parts of Zimbabwe and Malawi were also effected.

The government of Mozambique announced a confirmed death total of 200 and an estimated 100,000 people needed rescuing from the flood waters near Beira. Some of those rescued were without food or drinkable water for as many as three days. Families were split up, some members dying in the flood. The death toll may have exceeded more than 1000. In Zimbabwe a government statement indicated at least 98 died and another 200 missing. Following the storm the president of Mozambique declared three days of mourning.

Only a few weeks later Cyclone Kenneth came ashore in Mozambique It is the first time since records have been kept that two cyclones reached the country in the same season. Again there was extensive flooding.

Our Changing Climate

The big question is whether this event is indicative of climate change or just a matter of chance. In light of storm activity in the Indian Ocean in all probability it is a result of climate change and indicative of things to come.

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Climate Change


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Patagonia: An Environmentally Friendly Company

By Linn Smith

“We all saw what was happening in the remote corners of the world: creeping pollution and deforestation.”

As I was listening to the radio this morning, I heard an interview with the founder of Patagonia sports gear and clothing. I realized that Yvon Chouinard, founder of Patagonia, is a phenomenal man! His methods of sustainability and helping Planet Earth have been consistent throughout Patagonia’s almost 50 year existence, with the company’s environmental practices ranging from discouraging people against buying new products when they can fix the old, to sending trucks around the U.S. to fix Patagonia products, thus saving them from being discarded.

As an owner of a Patagonia jacket for many years, I not only realize the hardiness of this product but I now know if the zipper breaks, Patagonia will fix it!

Yvon Chouinard developed an environmentally friendly company because, not only does he make a quality, long lasting product, he witnessed the environmental injustices when Patagonia was new and attempted to create a low carbon footprint as his company developed.

Fighting for our Environment

In an excerpt from Yvon Chouinard’s book, “Let My People Go Surfing,” he states, “We all saw what was happening in the remote corners of the world: creeping pollution and deforestation, the slow, then not so slow, disappearance of fish and wildlife. And we saw what was happening closer to home: thousand year-old Sequoias succumbing to L.A. smog, the thinning of life in tide pools and kelp beds, the rampant development of the land along the coast. What we began to read – about global warming, the cutting and burning of tropical forests, the rapid loss of groundwater and topsoil, acid rain, the ruin of rivers and creeks from silting-over dams – reinforced what we saw with our eyes and smelled with our noses during our travels. At the same time, we slowly became aware that uphill battles fought by small, dedicated groups of people to save patches of habitat could yield significant results.”

Environmental Practices of Patagonia

Following are some environmentally friendly practices of Patagonia (from http://www.patagonia.com):

* In 1986, they committed to donate 10% of profits each year to these groups. They later upped the ante to 1% of sales, or 10% of profits, whichever was greater. They have kept to that commitment every year since
* They participate in grassroots efforts to save our planet.
* They make donations to small groups that restore/save the environment.
* In 1988, they initiated their first national environmental campaign on behalf of an alternative master plan to deurbanize the Yosemite Valley. Each year since, they have undertaken a major education campaign on an environmental issue.
* They took an early position against globalization of trade when it meant compromising environmental and labor standards.
* They have argued for dam removal where silting and marginally useful dams compromise fish life.
* They have supported wildlands projects that seek to preserve ecosystems whole and create corridors for wildlife to roam.
* Every eighteen months they hold a “Tools for Activists” conference to teach marketing and publicity skills to some of the groups they work with.
* They have been using recycled-content paper for their catalogs since the mid-eighties.
* They worked with Malden Mills to develop recycled polyester for use in their fleece.
* Their distribution center in Reno, opened in 1996, has achieved a 60% reduction in energy use through solar-tracking skylights and radiant heating; they use recycled content for everything from rebar to carpet to the partitions between urinals. They retrofitted lighting systems in existing stores, and build-outs for new stores became increasingly environmentally friendly.
* They assessed the dyes they used and eliminated colors from the line that required the use of toxic metals and sulfides. Most importantly, since the early nineties, they have made environmental responsibility a key element of everyone’s job.
* They changed to organic cotton because, the “natural” fiber used in most of their sportswear proved to be by far the greatest environmental evildoer of the fibers studied. They learned that 25% of all toxic pesticides used in agriculture was (and is) used in the cultivation of cotton, that the resulting pollution of soil and water was (and is) horrific, and that evidence of damage to the health of fieldworkers is strong, though difficult to prove. Cotton was the biggest villain – and it didn’t have to be. Farmers had grown cotton organically, without pesticides, for thousands of years. Only after World War II did the chemicals originally developed as nerve gases become available for commercial use, to eliminate the need for weeding fields by hand.”
* They continue the search for more environmentally friendly fabrics. They are using more hemp, in some products in combination with recycled polyester.
* They will repair their products.
* Worn Wear is an online program that will sell your old Patagonia gear. They say, “Why extend the life of your gear? Because the best thing we can do for our planet is get more use out of stuff we already own, cutting down on consumption, repairing, sharing and recycling your gear.” During the 2017 fiscal year, they made 50,295 clothing repairs. They also have a trade-in program to swap old gear and Patagonia’s Worn Wear trailer makes stops across the U.S. to repair their products.

Patagonia products may be a bit more expensive but they hold their value in resale. So, for all of the environmentally friendly practices of this company, I want to give a “hats off” to Patagonia for caring about our environment!

Patagonia

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The Salton Sea: The Accidental Lake

Dead fish line the shores because of high salinity and lack of oxygen

“The Salton Sea was man-made…by accident.”

By Linn Smith

The Salton Sea controversy was generated most recently by the signing of the Colorado Drought Contingency Agreement, which was mandated to be signed by all states bordering the Colorado River by the end of March 2019. These states were mandated to water cuts by the agreement in an attempt to prevent further dropping of water levels.

The Hoover Dam

Why the water cuts? If Lake Mead continues dropping and reaches below 1,050 ft, the Hoover Dam will stop generating power to millions of people. If it continues dropping below 895 ft. it will become a “dead pool”, where water can no longer be piped out to states along the river border. It is today only 40% full at approximately 1,082 ft, thus the federal intervention demand on cutbacks of water usage from all Colorado River border states.

The Imperial Irrigation District, the largest holder of water rights in California, was in line to sign the agreement, but only if the Colorado Contingency Agreement granted water to revive the troubled Salton Sea before signing. California signed anyway and the Salton Sea wasn’t included in the agreement.

The Salton Sea

Old structures fall apart on what was once the shoreline.

History of the Salton Sea

The Salton Sea has a lengthy history and has not been sustainable since its beginning. Sustainability is an avoidance of the depletion of natural resources in order to maintain ecological balance. The Salton Sea doesn’t meet this definition.

The Salton Sea was man-made…by accident. From 1905 to 1907, water poured out of a poorly built system of irrigation ditches meant to divert water from the Colorado River to the dry, arid farm land in Southern California. The water flooded the Salton basin, developing a 400 sq mile lake named the Salton Sea, California’s largest lake. Nicknamed the Salton Riviera in the 1950’s, the lake developed into a tourist destination, with resorts popping up around its edge. The Dept.of Fish and Game stocked it with many types of fish and boaters, yacht clubs and celebrities flocked to its shores.

The Salton Sea

The shoreline has been lost to evaporation and lack of water feeding into it.

The Decline of the Salton Sea

The decline of the Salton Sea began around 1976 with tropical storms, rising salinity due to no fresh water supply to counter evaporation, toxic agricultural runoff and a receding shoreline. Housing prices plummeted! Today, the main attraction is a wildlife refuge on the lake’s shore.

With the recent Colorado Drought Contingency agreement, the Imperial Valley District tried to demand its water rights for the declining sea, stating it has become a health hazard with toxic blowing sand due to agricultural run off, dying fish and abandoned buildings on a shoreline that no longer exists. California signed the Contingency Agreement without the support of the Imperial Valley District, its largest holder of water rights. According to the Washington Post, “The Metropolitan Water District, which serves Los Angeles, essentially wrote Imperial out of the drought plan to prevent delays in implementing it by taking on Imperial’s pledged water contributions to Lake Mead.”

In Support of Hoover Dam and Lake Mead

Was the Salton Sea ever sustainable? We can either support our communities who depend on the Colorado River for electricity and agriculture, or revitalize a dying sea that can’t survive and has little purpose today. With climate change everyone has to give for the greater good and for the survival future generations.

The Salton Sea


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Earth Hour and Earth Day are Now Global Events

Earth Day, April 22, 2019

This year Earth Day has a theme which is, “Protect Our Species”.

By Dr. John J. Hidore

In the past few years unusual environmental events have changed the public perception of global warming and climate change. Not only have the majority of people now endorsed the fact the warming of the planet is real, but also that something must be done to stop the rapid change to the global climate system.

Politicians around the world, regardless of their political or economic philosophy, are being forced to take action to curb the process. They are taking action because they must deal with the effects of global warming. Whether it is rising sea level, rising global temperatures, more frequent severe storms or changing weather patterns, the problems are real! Mayors of large cities and heads of state are now recognize and realize that something must be done.

Earth Day 2019

Earth Hour

Earth Hour

On Saturday March 30, 2019, a global event took place called Earth Hour. The purpose of the event was to call attention to the rising impact of human activity on the planet. The first Earth Hour was held in Sydney, Australia on March 31, 2007 and organized by the World Wildlife Fund. They asked the people to turn off their lights for one hour from 8:30 to 9:00 pm to call attention to the increasing effects of global warming. It is estimated that more than two million individuals participated.

Support for Earth Hour can be demonstrated by turning off lights at the designated time and/or for individuals, signing a pledge to do your part. Billboards in Times Square, New York and lights on some buildings were dimmed or shut down. Many other cities around the globe also participated. It has also been suggested that there has been more grass roots participation in this event than any other organized event. Next year’s event will be held on March 28 2020.

Earth day 2019

Earth day 2019

Earth Day

The first Earth Day was held on April 22, 1970. This will be the 49th year of the event. Earth Day 2019 promises to be of major significance. This Earth Day, April 22, more national governments, non-governmental organizations, and individuals are expected to take part in scheduled activities than ever before!

This year the event has a theme which is, “Protect Our Species”. The emphasis is going to be on protecting threatened and endangered species. Today humans are responsible for the most rapid rated of extinction of species that has occurred in more than fifty million years. Prior to the impact of humans, species were disappearing at the rate of one to five species each year. The current rate is perhaps a thousand times that. It is estimated that nearly half of all animal species are in decline. Some have labeled it the Sixth Mass Extinction. A mass extinction is defined as an event in which more than half of all species become extinct.

Earth Day 2019

Earth Day 2019

Next year will the 50th anniversary of Earth Day. Plans are already underway to make it a special event!

Protect Our Species


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Climate Change: The Shift in Politics and Public Opinion

“If the Green New Deal isn’t a quick fix, it is creating a conversation.”

By Linn Smith

Renewable energy

Support sustainable energy

The term Green New Deal, has currently been brought to public attention by Congresswoman, Alexandria Ocasii Cortez. But the term was originally used in the early 2000’s by Van Jones to outline his vision for a program that would birth a “just and green” economy, as written in his book, The Green Collar.

Climate change

Support renewable resources

The Changing Public Opinion on Climate Change

Public opinion is changing in support of climate legislation, politicians can no longer put it on the back burner. Seventy per cent of Americans have real concern for our changing climate and have some knowledge of what’s coming down the pipeline in our future. Most people have also experienced some form of extreme weather conditions in the past several years.

climate change

Support Renewables

The Green New Deal

If the Green New Deal isn’t a quick fix, it is creating a conversation and parts of the proposal are gaining support from both Democrats and Republicans.” An article on climate change in the recent issue of Time Magazine states, “The outcome of the debate will go a long way towards determining if humanity can avoid the most catastrophic consequences of a rapidly warming world….the science is damning and the clock is ticking!”

The Green New Deal


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Renewable Energy: Hatch, New Mexico

“The systems are best for high and dry climates, which makes Hatch an optimal location.”

As a resident of New Mexico for 6 years, I have long known the value of Hatch green chili…the Best in the West! But the past several years I have traveled Hwy 26, a lonely stretch of road through seemingly baron land just west of Hatch, passing massive wind and solar fields.

Solar Power

According to VillageofHatch.org here is the data on the impressive energy produced by these solar fields, plus pictures I was able to snap along my route recently:

“The Hatch Solar Energy Center consists of 84 Amonix 60-kW systems on 41 acres of land. The platform and panels are each 50 feet wide and 55 feet high tall. Each panel is made up of three different photovoltaic materials in a single cell so they extract more energy from the range of wavelengths in sunlight. Dual-axis tracking systems maximize energy production throughout the day by allowing the CPV systems to follow the sun. The systems are best for high and dry climates, which makes Hatch an optimal location. The systems require no water in power production, use land better, and produce more energy per acre than any other solar technology— equivalent of planting 3,500 trees every year it operates.”

Wind Power

The Macho Spring windfarm is nearby.

Wind Turbines

Along my route I also passed a train carrying at least 30 wind turbine blades…the trip was a visual feast for my “build it green” eyes!

And, while you’re on the drive, stop at Sparky’s in Hatch and get some green chili lemonade, it’s a treat your taste buds won’t soon forget!

Happy Trails!

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On Population Growth

“The momentum for an increasing population seems to be difficult to change.”

By Dr. John J. Hidore

March 17, 2019—–During the earliest stage of modern humans the human species was struggling with the environment. They were just beginning to use stone tools. The size of the population was limited by the amount of wild food that could be gathered or caught. When food was scarce the population died back, and when it was plentiful the population expanded.

Diseases due to technological advances began at an early time. Sinusitis is a disease that irritates the nose as a result of breathing damp, smoky, or dusty air, such as was often found in inhabited caves. Evidence of sinusitis has been detected in skulls dating well back into the paleolithic. Only limited numbers of human lives were lost from storms and other short lived events as the population was small and widely scattered.

Overpopulaton

Overpopulation and turmoil leads to current migration patterns.

During the first 500,000 thousand years the population growth was slow. Birth rates were high, perhaps between 38 to 42 per thousand. The death rate was also very high, perhaps between 35 to38 per thousand. Evidence indicates that infant mortality was high and average life span was around 30 years.

Although life was difficult for hominoids during this time, the human species triumphed. Charles Darwin stated the case for these early people. “Man, in the rudest form in which he now exists, is the most dominant animal that has appeared on earth. He has spread more widely than any other highly organized species, and all others have yielded before him.” (1871)

Overpopulation and wallstreet

Does organized religion support overpopulation?

Current and projected Growth

The global population numbers began to grow and are now growing faster than at any time in history. We are now adding about 224,000 people per day to the planet. This adds 82,000,000 people to the planet each year. That annual increase is the same as adding the population of the United States to the planet every three to four years.

What is astonishing in the growth data is how fast the rate of growth has been increasing. It took hundreds of thousands of years for the first billion to be reached in about 1800. The time it has taken for adding each billion has dropped rapidly. The last billion was added in just 12 years from 1999 to 2011. At the beginning of 2019 global population stood at about seven billion. The key element in driving population growth is changing technology which has increased the global food supply.

Some estimates of early human population size:

125,000 1 million years ago
1-5 million 11,000 B.C
50 million 3,000 B.C
500 million 1,500 A.D.

Adding the billions Time Span for the growth:

1 billion 1800 200,000 to a million years
2 billion 1930 130 years
3 billion 1960 30 years
4 billion 1974 14 years
5 billion 1987 13 years
6 billion 1999 12 years
7 Billion 2011 12 years
8 Billion 2023-2025 12-14years

The human population reached its highest annual growth rate of about 2 percent per year, in the early 1970s. The growth rate in 2018 was around 1.1 percent. While the rate has dropped the absolute number of humans added to the planet each year continues to be greater than in the past. In mid-2019 the total population is estimated to reach about 7.7 billion.

Carrying Capacity and overpopulation

What is Carrying Capacity?

Region Growth

Today the fastest-growing countries are the developing countries. Many of the nations with the highest growth rates are in Africa and southwest Asia. China has the largest population of any country. However, India, which has a smaller population than China but has a higher growth rate, is adding 1/3 more people each year than is China. The UN projects India to surpass China as the most populous country in the world about the year 2028. At that time both countries will have a population of about 1.45 billion. China’s population will begin to stabilize near that time and India’ will continue to grow for some time. Most of the growth will be in developing countries with more than half in Africa. Population in Sub-Saharan Africa is projected to double from the 2010 population of 0.86 to 1.96 billion in 2050.

Are there enough resources for overpopulation?

With climate change will there be enough resources for all?

Prognosis

The next billion people added to the earth will want and expect food, clothing, shelter, and some means of employment. How are these needs to be met? There are already a billion people with some degree of malnutrition. Most of the population supports themselves from agriculture. All good and even marginal land is already occupied, and much productive land is being removed from agriculture due to erosion and general depletion. How are these agriculturists going to find employment? These are critical issues.

The momentum for an increasing population seems to be difficult to change. Global business thrives on population growth. It seems the options are limited. Either the human species understands what is taking place and mandates a change, or these trends will continue until some unpredictable apocalypse eliminates a substantial portion of the people living at the time.

The world’s increasing population!

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Building Sustainable Communities

Sustainable communities

Live sustainably

“A sustainable community, though varying in structure, promotes sustainable, or green, living for its occupants.”

By Linn Smith
March 3, 2019—I recently read an article by a woman who was trying to live sustainably for several months… walking, riding her bike, growing her own food and dumpster diving when that ran out. I’m all for living sustainably, and I think I do a pretty good job of it, but dumpster diving is not on my list of sustainable living methods. Not that I’m against it, it’s just not for me! Plus, I can’t see spending my entire day walking, biking and looking for food. So, what is the answer? Maybe the hippies of the 70’s had it right when they developed communes. Today the word is…sustainable communities!

Sustainable communities

The Amish live a sustainable life.

The Amish: A Sustainable Community

When I was growing up in the rural Midwest, there was a nearby Amish community. The Amish would open their homes on weekends to the outside community, selling a variety of pies, cakes and many other delicious baked goods and hand made products. We would drive the country roads to get there, passing the men in black hats walking behind the draft horses as they plowed the field. Sometimes we would pass them on the paved roads near our house as they drove their buggies near the edge. The men would make extra money roofing barns in the area, with the stipulation that you must go to their community to pick them up. The Amish are living a sustainable life as they have since arriving since the U.S. in the early 1700s.

I grew up knowing how hard field work was, (but not Amish hard) driving the tractor to bale hay and dragging the fields, milking cows and watching my folks fill the jars with canned goods that went in the basement for the winter. It was sustainable living for that time period.

What is a Sustainable Community?

A sustainable community, though varying in structure, promotes sustainable, or green, living for its occupants by creating a healthy place to live while reducing the carbon footprint and negative environmental impact. It doesn’t have to mean dumpster diving or driving a horse and buggy down the highway, but it is important for individuals, families and communities to move in a sustaining direction.

sustainable communities

Dancing Rabbit is a sustainable community in Missouri.

Dancing Rabbit EcoVillage

Building a sustainable community may take several forms, such as buying land and building sustainable housing with a community greenhouse, gardens, solar and wind power. An example of this is Dancing Rabbit EcoVillage in Missouri which has built their community using the following guidelines:

Green communities

Sustainable living

1. No vehicles are to be used or stored in the village.
2. Fossil fuels for cars, refrigeration, heating and cooling homes, as well heating domestic water aren’t allowed.
3. All gardening must be organic.
4. All power must come from renewable resources.
5. No lumber from outside the local area is allowed unless it is recycled or salvaged.
6. Organic waste and recyclable materials are to be reincorporated into usable products through composting methods.

Extreme? Maybe….. but there may be more palatable solutions.

green communities

Work .towards making your community more sustainable

Making Your Community Sustainable

In the Mother Earth Living article by Carol Venolia, “Come Together: How to Build Sustainable Communities,” Ms. Venolia makes the following points for making an already established community more sustainable:

1. Have a neighborhood potluck to discuss the possibilities of moving towards a green community and exchange information.
2. Establish a community garden in free spaces in the neighborhood such as vacant lots.
3. Install low water drip irrigation systems where needed. This system is the most efficient in water saving techniques.
4. Share produce from already existing backyard gardens
5. Help each other replace high maintenance sod lawns with indigenous plants that will thrive in your climate.
6. Create a neighborhood resource website to encourage sharing of items from tools to cars. Also, list neighborhood members’ different skills that could be traded.
7. Ride share. Create a community e-mail to list who is going on errands that may be shared with another rider.
8. Share time and skills to make the neighborhood homes more energy efficient, lowering energy bills.
9. Make a neighborhood investment in a solar-power.
10. Support local farmers by buying food grown locally.
11. Become familiar with your larger community by knowing local flora and fauna and waterways. The more you learn the more you are apt to participate in making your environment a healthy place by creating sustainable living. “Community is a major component of sustainability. Strong neighborhood ties don’t just make life more pleasant, studies show they also improve safety and increase personal longevity.”

Now is the time to reach out and lend a helping hand to your neighbor and Planet Earth! Be a role model for your children and leave them a healthy place to live.

Sustainable Living


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Record Heat Waves Plague the Planet

There will be more severe heat waves. They will become hotter, more frequent, last longer and occur in more varied places.

By Dr. John J. Hidore
February 12, 2019——Heat wave is a general term. When it seems unusually warm someplace there is often a tendency to describe the weather as a heat wave. As it turns out it is very hard to define a heat wave. The reason is simple. Normal summer high temperatures vary greatly from place to place. What would be defined as a heat wave in one location would not be appropriate for another location, perhaps not even too far away. An adequate definition might be, “A heat wave is an unusually warm or hot period lasting for days or perhaps weeks.” We associate them with summer but by this definition they can actually occur at any season.

climate change

The exchange of energy is causing rapid arctic melting.

At least one country makes a clear definition of a heat wave and that is Pakistan. India also defines heat waves and uses different temperatures in different parts of the country to establish what constitutes a heat wave. In the plains regions of the Unites States, temperatures above 40degreesC (104 degreesF) constitute a heat wave. They also define a severe heat wave for this region as experiencing temperatures over 46 degreesC (114.8 degreesF).

Distribution of the 2018 Heat Waves

In 2018 the northern hemisphere experienced major heat waves. Heat waves occurred over most of the northern hemisphere as well as Australia. Europe experienced a major heat wave in the spring and summer. These extreme heat waves were largely a function of climate change, particularly of global warming.

Indian drought

Millions effected by the drought

Global warming also increases the probability of higher extreme temperatures during a heat wave. Such was the case in 2018. All-time highs were recorded in North America and Europe. At one location in Finland that is north of the Arctic circle, a temperature of 33.3°C (92°F) was recorded. Undoubtedly extreme highs were recorded in many other areas as well. Qurayyat, in Oman, experienced a 24 hour period when the temperature did not drop below 42.6°C. This was the highest minimum daily temperature ever recorded.

The Impact of the Heat Waves

The impacts of the heat waves were many and varied. They included:
A. Increased mortality: Japan, Algeria, and Canada recorded fatalities attributed to the heat.
B. Droughts and agricultural losses. In parts of Europe precipitation amounts fell to as little as 20% of normal.
C. The closing of nuclear power plants due to a shortage of water for cooling.
D. Frequent and severe wild fires. Severe wild fires occurred on every continent except Antarctica.
E. In 2016 and 2017 there was major bleaching of the Great Barrier Reef. In all probability 2018 will turn out to be the same
F. In the summer at one point the combined concentration of greenhouse gasses reached 500 ppm, approximately 100 ppm above the average for this time.

The Deadly Heat Wave of Europe in 2003

Some heat waves have become deadly. Perhaps the most deadly heat wave of the 21st Century was that which occurred in Europe in August of 2003. Temperatures in France reached as much as 40°C (104 DegreesF) and remained exceptionally high for two weeks resulting in nearly 15,000 deaths in that country alone. The death toll over Europe reached approximately 35,000 and may have been as high as 50,000.

Climate Change

The earth’s overall temperatures are increasing every year.

A large contributing factor in the high death toll was warmer than normal nighttime temperatures. As a result people without air conditioning could not cool down during the night. The heat stress accumulated over time. Extreme heat waves also can devastate agriculture. In Europe, in the heat wave of 2003, temperatures averaged 5.5°C (10°F) above normal. In Italy corn yields dropped 36% below average. In France fruit yields fell 25% and wine production 10%. Heat also affects the rate of plant pollination.

Asian heat waves of 2015

That year a May heat wave in India claimed at least 2,500 lives. Heat waves are fairly frequent in India but this was the greatest loss of life from a heat wave in over 30 years. Extremely high temperatures were reached in cities scattered over the country. Power outages were wide spread as a result of high demand for air conditioning. The city of Khammam recorded the highest temperature ever recorded there at 48 degrees C (118.4 degreesF). Other high temperatures that were recorded were:

Allahabad 47.8 degrees C (118.0 degrees F)
Delhi 45.5 degrees C (113.9 degrees F)
Hyderabad 46 degrees C (115 degrees F)
Jharsuguda 45.4 degrees C (113.7 degrees F)

In June the deadliest heat wave known to have occurred in Pakistan took place in the southern part of the country near Karachi. The death toll is unknown for certain but may have reached more than 1000. The heat wave struck during the month of Ramadan which made the impact of the event more severe than it might have been. Unfortunately, city services were not in condition to cope with the heat.

As the planet warms it can be expected that: (1) there will be more severe heat waves. They will become hotter, more frequent, last longer and occur in more varied places. As cities grow larger in area and population they will experience increasing heat waves. (2) new record high temperatures will be set more frequently on the planet.

Heat Wave