Planet Earth Weekly

Climate Change and Renewable Energy: Saving Our Planet for Future Generations


Leave a comment

Factors Resulting in Long Term Climate Change

climate change

Climate Change over geological time

“Long-term climate changes are those changes over Geologic time that may persist for millions of years.”

By Dr. John J. HIdore

December 6, 2017—–Long-term climate changes are those changes over Geologic time that may persist for millions of years. The intermittent ice ages that have occurred through the span of earth history are an example. The processes which have produced these long-term changes, for the most part, also take place slowly.

Earth–Sun Relationships

Regular variations in the motion of the earth as it travels around the sun explain daily and seasonal differences in the amount of solar energy arriving at the surface. However, the angle of the earth’s axis and the distance from Earth to the sun vary over time.

The obliquity of the ecliptic: This term refers to the angle of Earth’s axis in relation to the plane in which the earth revolves around the sun. This angle is not constant. On a cycle of a period of about 41,000 years, the angle varies some 1.5° about the mean of 23.1°. If the earth’s axis were perpendicular to the plane there would be equal lengths of day and night over the globe and result in little seasonal change. If the angle were greater than 23.5 there would be greater extremes in the lengths of summer and winter days and nights and to cause distinctive changes in the distribution of Earth’s climates.

Earth’s orbital eccentricity: The earth moves around the sun in an elliptical orbit; the eccentricity of the orbit is derived by comparing the path to that of a true circle. Currently the orbit is relatively close to a circle. Over the past million years, the orbit has changed from almost circular to a distinctly oblong shape. This change influences the amount of solar radiation intercepted by the earth and modifies the dates at which the solstices and equinoxes occur.

climate change

Climate change through geological time

Distribution of Continents

One set of theories of climatic change deals with the location of continental land masses in relation to the position of the poles and the equator. Reconstructed maps for the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation (250 million years ago) and those of the most recent Pleistocene glaciation show that in both cases there was a concentration of land masses in the polar realms. However, there have been times when such a location occurred, but no glaciation resulted.

Intimately related to the idea of moving continents is the role of mountain building. As an explanation of this theory, one only has to think of the formation of snow and ice on Mt. Kilimanjaro located astride the equator. Geologists have long noted the relationship between times of extensive mountain-building periods and some of the ice ages. For example, both the Permo-Carboniferous and recent ice ages were preceded by extensive mountain-building periods.

Variation in the Oceans

Modern research in climatology is paying increasing attention to the role of the oceans in the climatic system. The oceans have received attention, providing in some cases the basis of entire theories of climatic change. Some of the ways in which the oceans influence the prevailing climates on Earth include the following:
1. Changes in the elevation of the land is a factor. A drop in sea level would increase the heights of the continents and enlarge land masses.
2. The oceans are less variable in temperature than the continents, and changes in the relative temperature of oceanic waters influence world climates. Variations in the energy storage in the oceans can occur because of changes in salinity, evaporation rates, and relative solar penetration.
3. Oceans play a significant role in the redistribution of energy over the earth’s surface. Ocean currents transport large amounts of heat, and any changes in their relative extent and direction of flow have a great impact on climate.

Extraterrestrial Impacts

At intervals throughout the history of Earth, exceptionally large objects from space have struck the earth. When these objects struck Earth, some altered the climate tremendously for short periods and in some cases for periods of thousands of years. The boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary geologic periods was approximately 65 million years ago. Much evidence now points to a large object impacting the earth at this time. It certainly altered the climate. The impact produced firestorms over the earth, destroying much of the vegetation. These same fires would have removed much of the atmospheric oxygen and added large amounts of carbon dioxide.
A huge dust cloud was raised that blocked out the sun for months causing temperatures to drop. The fires also contributed a huge cloud of soot to the atmosphere. The sustained cloud of solid particles would have greatly reduced solar radiation to the ground. Precipitation would have turned into acid rain and snow as the highly sulfurous particles combined with water particles in the atmosphere.

Other Theories

The theories presented herein are a partial representation of those that have been suggested. Other researchers have introduced ideas ranging from the possible influence of the periodic passage of the earth through an interstellar dust cloud to variations in atmospheric water vapor caused by both natural and human activities. Despite all of these ideas, there is no single theory that can account for all of the observed events; it is evident that earth’s climates result from a spectrum of causal elements.
Follow us on facebook at: https://www.facebook.com/planetearthweekly/

Advertisements


2 Comments

Climate Change Over Geological Time

Glacial Ages and Climate

Climate Change Over Time

“Climate change at the present is of great consequence to most species including humans.

By Dr. John J. Hidore

November 15, 2017—-Planet Earth was formed about 4.5 billion years ago. Geologists have divided this long history of the planet into several pieces called eras. They are the Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic.

The Precambrian is the longest and each of the other three are shorter than the previous one. When considering climate change through geologic time, two aspects stand out. The first is that for most of geologic time Earth has been warmer than it is at present. How much warmer varied through time. The second feature that stands out is the intermittent ice ages when large portions of the earth were covered with ice.

Major Ice Ages

Relatively little is known about the long period of Precambrian time. Basically it was the period during which the earth cooled from its initial very hot state. The Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras encompass the rest of geologic time, about 570 million years. More evidence, and a greater variety of
evidence, is available about the environment during these eras. The climate of Earth varied widely during this time. However, it has been established that there were three known periods of glaciation in Precambrian time. They were:

Archeozoic 2250 million years ago (mya)
Early Precambrian: 950 million years ago
Late Precambrian: 750 million years ago

There were four major glaciations following that of the Precambrian era. They were:

Early Cambrian: 650 mya
Ordovician: 450 mya
Permo-Carboniferous: 350-250 mya
Pleistocene: 1.8 mya until recent time

Following the ice age at the end of the Precambrian, the earth rapidly warmed. For the remainder of the history of the earth, temperatures have averaged 5 degrees C (9°F) higher than at the present. These warmer conditions existed probably 90 percent of the time over the past 570 million years.

The Permo-carboniferous Ice Age

An ice age, called the Permo-carboniferous, began at the end of the Paleozoic Era. It began about 325 million years ago and lasted until about 250 million years ago. The South Pole was in the midst of the large land mass called Gondwanaland. Ice sheets moved over about half of this large land mass. What is now Antarctica and parts of Australia, India, Africa, and South America were covered with ice. The glaciation of each of these areas did not take place at precisely the same time, but they were all affected by the same climatic cooling. The Southern Hemisphere suffered widespread glaciation, but the Northern Hemisphere remained warm. The most appealing explanation for this situation is a different relative location of the land masses. The northern continents were nearer the equator and the southern land masses nearer the poles.

Climate Change

Climate Change over time.

The Warming of the Earth

After the glaciation in the Permo-Carboniferous ice age, the earth again entered a long period of warm conditions. The period of warmth continued through most of the Mesozoic Era and the earth was free of glaciation. Temperatures were warm and rainfall was abundant on the land masses. Even the polar regions experienced mild weather. Initially, the warmer conditions resulted from the slow migrations of the large southern hemisphere land mass to the north. This carried areas that had been glaciated into warmer climates.

The Pleistocene Ice Age

The most important single environmental event since the human species has been on earth has been the oscillation between glaciation and interglacials during the Pleistocene Epoch. The epoch represents a large change from much of the last 570 million years. This ice age is the most recent of the major cold periods to occur over the history of the planet. During the time when the ice was most extensive over Earth, temperatures averaged about 4°C (7°F ) lower than those of the present. In the northern hemisphere it was perhaps 8 to 12 °C ( 14 to 22°F) lower than current temperatures. 

There is no question but what the climate of planet earth has changed frequently, and sometimes drastically, over geologic time.

Climate Change Today

Climate change at the present is of great consequence to most species including humans. There is really no way of knowing how much change will take place in the foreseeable future nor how much is due to the activity of our species. What is known is the earth is warming rapidly at this time and that all evidence points to human activity as bearing the responsibility.

Now is the time to take international action and not only support the Paris Agreement, but take even more drastic measures to curtain the warming!

Climate Change

Follow us on Facebook at: https://www.facebook.com/planetearthweekly/


Leave a comment

Puerto Rico: Rebuilding Sustainably

Renewable Resources

 

“Building sustainably in Puerto Rico can take many different forms.” 

By Linn Smith

October 19, 2017—Even though Puerto Rico is going through a devastating time after the hurricane, it is essential that we not only meet the current needs of the people, but also think about its future….rebuilding sustainably. Areas devastated by wind and flooding must not only think about immediate needs, but consider the future way climate change may threaten vulnerable coastal areas. 

There is an agreement among scientists that our warming climate is producing larger, more aggressive hurricanes, and rising oceans are leading to stronger storm surges, destroying and flooding inland areas.

Puerto Rico: Sources of Energy

According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, Puerto Rico has some renewable solar, wind, hydropower and biomass resources, but relies primarily on imported fossil fuels to meet its energy needs, importing mostly from the U.S.

In 2016, Puerto Ricans paid more for their power than people in any other state except Hawaii, with 47% of electricity coming from petroleum, 34% from natural gas, 17% from coal and only 2% from renewable energy.

The Future of Energy in Puerto Rico

Now is the time to make decisions about Puerto Rico’s future energy needs. How will Puerto Rico get its power in the future? PREPA, the Puerto Rico Electric and Power Company, Puerto Rico’s only utility company, is mismanaged and highly in need of upgrading according to some sources. According to http://www.commondreams.org, it would be a waste to pour more money into this system. Instead, we need to invest funds into local renewables and energy efficient transportation, such as streetcars and light rail trains. 

Richard Heinberg in the article “Disaster in Puerto Rico” stated, “This is a chance to build back sustainably. People tend to maintain their status quo as long as it’s viable, but when in dire straits, they’re more likely to listen and when denial is no longer possible, people are more likely to face reality.”

Eigg renewables

Eigg uses 99% Renewable Energy

Eigg, Scottland: 99% Renewable

According to an article by David Nield, March 2017, http://www.sciencealert.com, researchers from around our planet are visiting the tiny, Scottish island of Eigg, which is using wind, solar and hydo to obtain the island’s power. This system, owned and operated by the island’s residents, has been using sustainable energy since 2009. Eigg Electric uses a combination of sustainable resources to ensure there is always energy. When back-up energy is needed, it’s supplied by several diesel generators with cables linking all the sources of energy together. Renewable energy is used 95% of the time and excess energy is stored in a bank of 100 batteries. When these batteries are full, electric heaters automatically switch on in the church and community hall so nothing is wasted. Eigg’s population has doubled since this system has been in place, but the system is still meeting the needs of the residents. The drawback is that citizens are limited to the amount of power they can use daily from the public utilities
.
Ta’u, a small island in Samoa, is also changing from diesel to renewables. Today it’s powered by 5,000 Solar City solar panels and 60 Tesla Powerpack battery storage units. The Powerpack is a massive battery, 16 Powerwall battery pods encased in a weatherproof box, that can store electricity during the day when supply is abundant and discharge it when demand goes up after the sun goes down. This system provides the island with about 99% of its needs.

Tesla solar project in Hawaii.

Tesla and the Powerpack Battery

Tesla has also built a huge solar energy plant on the island of Kauai, one of Hawaii’s main islands. This project will reduce fossil fuel by 1.6 million gallons per year. The island signed a 20 year contract with Tesla to buy solar generated electricity from solar panels installed on the island for 13.9 cents per kilowatt hour. The average price of electricity in Hawaii is 37.34 cents per kwh, the highest rate in the nation. Kauai is the first major solar/storage project for Tesla. Tesla states, “We will work with energy providers around the world seeking to overcome barriers in the way of building a sustainable, renewable energy grid of their own.”

Tesla is also in the process of shipping battery packs to Puerto Rico, but details of the project have not yet been made available. Building sustainably in Puerto Rico can take many different forms and accepting help from Tesla could be a starter.

Find us also on Facebook at: https://www.facebook.com/planetearthweekly/

Puerto Rico: Build Sustainably


Leave a comment

Living Green: Using Our Resources 

building green

Cities, states and individuals must do their part in preventing climate change.

Remember: Recycle, Reduce, Reuse!

By Linn Smith

October 12, 2017—-People in developed countries are losing the ability to be resourceful! We “run to the store” impulsively on a daily basis. How did folks survive without today’s conveniences? Today nearby stores provide us with our every need, and we too often toss excess and unused products in the garbage, leaving our landfills and oceans overloaded with toxic materials that may never decompose!

Growing up on a farm, we grew most of our own food. Our basement was lined with many shelves containing hundreds of jars filled with colorful, canned foods from our garden. Cows, pigs and chickens provided us with fresh meat, and our dairy cows provided the milk we drank, and it wasn’t pasteurized! My mother strained the milk through a cheesecloth to get the big chunks (of whatever) out…..and my brothers, sisters and I all grew up healthy! Farm life was what we call green living today….but back then it was just life!

Families use to be resourceful. To obtain something they needed, they reused, fixed, mended or created something new from what they already had.  My grandmother created children’s mittens from old sweaters, it saved money and no new items were purchased.

Earth Day: Let's Clean and Green!

Earth Day today and every day!

Eco-friendly Steps to Going Green

What are some eco-friendly steps we can take to conserve today? Here are just a few:

1. Turn some of your yard (or all of it) into a garden and can or freeze the vegetables. Yards were originally for very wealthy families in England, who used sheep to keep the grass trimmed. Lawns weren’t meant to look like  golf courses. They had dandelions and clover. Today our lawns are toxic with chemicals and leave  huge carbon footprints!

2. Buy unpackaged products from local farmers at farmer’s markets.

3. Cook from scratch instead of buying processed food. It tastes better!

4. Make restaurants an occasional option, not a daily trip. (This includes Starbucks!).

5. Buy second-hand from used stores, garage sales, or auctions. Fix, mend or make-do.

6. Don’t buy more than you need. Several years ago we stored most of what we thought was our valuable “stuff” and went RVing. It cost well over $1000 to store. When we returned and assessed our “stuff,” we realized we could live without most of it. We had a garage sale, making several hundred dollars from the sale of our valuables that had cost over a $1000 to store!

7. Recycle and compost.

Earth Day

Clean Energy: Make It a Priority!

Why Not Go Green?

Here are some excuses people make to avoid helping our planet:

1. It’s too expensive…BUT, if you shop around most things are comparable.

2. One person can’t make a difference….YES, you can! Good thing everybody doesn’t feel this way!

3. No one else around me is living eco-friendly…..WELL, THEN….how ’bout you be the first!

4. It’s too late. The planet is already doomed….OK, pull your head out of the sand and look around at what positive people are doing!

5. Global warming is a myth. NO IT’S NOT! (But I won’t waste my time arguing with you on this point!)

6. It takes too much time and effort. It’s like anything else, it becomes routine when done on a regular basis.

Before you buy something, ask yourself if you really need it, or is there something you already have that could be used…or ask, Can I make do with less?

Remember: Recycle, Reduce, Reuse!

Recycle, Reduce, Reuse!

Visit us at: https://www.facebook.com/planetearthweekly/


Leave a comment

Storms: Global Warming Sets 21st Century Record

Hurricanes

Hurricane off the shore of the U.S.

“The prognosis is for these marine storms to become more intense with time.”

By Dr. John J. Hidore

October 2, 2017—-In the many years since global warming and climate change became recognized as a global problem, it has been forecast that severe storms would become more severe. The severity of hurricanes in the 21st Century supports this forecast.

North Atlantic Hurricanes

Hurricanes occur in many parts of the world’s oceans and go by different names in different regions.
In the North Atlantic and South Atlantic Oceans, they are called hurricanes. In the North Atlantic, the hurricane season runs from June 1 to November 30 and most hurricanes occur during this period.

In 2017, the first storm to reach hurricane strength was Arlene on April 19, well before the normal season begins. It was only the second named storm to occur in April since records began. This year, in 2017, is the first time that two hurricanes of category four reached the United States. Both of these were Atlantic hurricanes. If the recent hurricane that struck Puerto Rico is included it raises that number to three.

South Atlantic Hurricanes

Hurricanes are rare in the Atlantic Ocean south of the equator. Many tropical lows develop in this region, but Hurricane Catarina, in 2004, was the first and only tropical depression in history to reach hurricane status in this part of the global ocean.

Hurricanes

Heavy hurricane winds threaten the coast.

North Pacific Severe Storms

The northern Pacific Ocean is divided into two regions for naming severe cyclonic storms. North of the Equator and East of the International Date Line at 180 degrees, they are hurricanes. The eastern Pacific hurricane season begins earlier than does the Atlantic season. It runs from May 15 through November. In 2017, the first system to reach tropical storm status was Adrian and developed on May 9, the earliest on record. However, it did not reach hurricane strength.

The northwest Pacific region extends from 100 degrees East to the International date line. In this region the storms are referred to as typhoons. Most of the worst typhoons on record have occurred in the 21st Century. This is particularly true when fatalities indicate the severity. The Philippine Islands lie in the path of these storms. Between five and ten tropical cyclones make landfall in the islands each year. Haiyan, in 2013, was the most severe on record, taking more than 6000 lives and displacing several million people. The local name for the storm was Typhoon Yolanda. The first typhoon of 2017 formed on January 7. Typhoon Noru formed in July and became a Category 5, or super typhoon.

Hurricanes

The eye of the hurricane

Indian Ocean Cyclones

In the Indian Ocean and western parts of the South Pacific region, these storms are called cyclones. In 2015 Cyclone Pam reached a Category 5 status with sustained winds of 160 mph

The Coming Years

Climate change, and particularly warmer water in the Pacific Ocean are most certainly contributing to the increased severity of the storm. The prognosis is for these marine storms to become more intense with time. 

Follow us at: https://www.facebook.com/planetearthweekly/


Leave a comment

Solar Christmas Lights: A Review

solar Christmas

With solar Christmas lightning, no chords are necessary.

By Linn Smith

“My rating today depends on where the light energy comes from, the grid or the sun.”

September 25, 2017—-We all love driving around at Christmas time, looking at the multi-colored Christmas lights that decorate our neighborhoods. My family likes to rate them on a scale of 1-10, which would end in a discussion of the pros and cons of the lit up yard full of decorations. We had our rating scale, a one on our scale was for just a few white lights and a 10 was a yard full of colored lights and decorations.

My rating today depends on where the light energy comes from, the grid or the sun.  Is the utility bill higher in December because of an abundance of Christmas lights….or are we taking what’s free from the Sun?

Solar Christmas lights Make it a solar Christmas.

Solar Christmas Lighting

A string of Christmas lights uses a small solar panel which sticks into the ground. Some are adjustable for optimum charging with the angle of the sun.

http://www.Solartechnologyhub.com reviews several types of outdoor Christmas lighting. The Editor’s Choice is a string of lights from http://www.innootech.com. This string is almost 20 ft long, is water resistant, and fully charges in 6-8 hours. They will light up your yard for 8-10 hours and cost about $14.00. Also from this site are colorful flower solar strings for the same price. This solar string has an adjustable solar panel design for direct sunlight all year around.

Walmart has a variety of indoor/outdoor solar Christmas lights in the store and online ranging from $10-$20, plus many more stores today, such as Home Depot, are carrying them on their shelves.

Solar Christmas lights

Solar Christmas lights provide the same lighting as other lights.

Advantages of Solar Christmas Lights

1. Though Christmas lights can be relatively inexpensive when running off of grid electricity, use what is free, the sun!

2. Christmas lighting is comparable to other lighting.

3. Solar lighting withstands rain and snow.

4. No extension cords to worry about.

Whether you save a few cents or a few dollars on your electrical bill , it is still free and environmentally friendly. Think Green!

You can recycle Christmas lights at Ace Hardware, Home Depot or most recycling centers.

Go Solar!

Follow us at: https://www.facebook.com/planetearthweekly/


Leave a comment

Why Coastal Cities Must Build Sustainably

Soft shoreline vs. Hardshoreline

Soft shorelines create spaces for the water to go.

Obama Presidential Adviser, John Holdren, said of the challenge of climate change, “We will end up with a mix of prevention, adaptation and suffering. It is for us to determine the ratio.”

By Linn Smith

September 18, 2017 ——With the recent flooding in Texas and Florida, it is evident that the rising seas from climate change will affect us by chronic flooding, which will become more frequent. There will be continued flooding and devastation from weather as our climate and seas warm up.
The Union of Concerned Scientists ask the question, “If flooding continues, how many times does it have to happen before you stop thinking of rebuilding and start thinking of relocation? Each community has a threshold for sea level rise and chronic flooding beyond which sustaining normal routines becomes impossible.”

climate change

Mitigation Vs. Prevention

Mitigation or Prevention

Scientist have worried for years that melting sea ice and ocean warming would cause a rise in sea levels, extreme weather and more severe and frequent hurricanes. What is our government’s responsibility? Do we continue to spend our tax dollars on mitigation, cleaning up the aftermath of the increasingly destructive power of storms? Do we continue to rebuild coastal areas that are vulnerable to climate change or do we have a responsibility to reconstruct cities and coastal areas against the coming vulnerability of our changing climate?

William V. Sweet, Scientist with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration stated, “Once impacts become noticeable, heavy rains and extensive flooding are going to be upon us quickly. It’s not 100 years off anymore.” Higher seas mean higher storm surges. As seas rise in an area, the coastal creeks and marshes will rise and bring salt water inland. Many coastal trees will be affected by the saltwater rise.

Storm Surges

Protection from Storm Surges

Reducing the Impact of Rising Seas

What are our choices? Keep spending tax dollars on rebuilding coastal properties or rebuild naturally to reduce the impact of rising seas. A soft shoreline maintains the natural dynamics of the shoreline, with a healthy movement of the sand and improving habitats of sea life. It allows the coastline to do what it does naturally, without the build-up of asphalt and man-made dwellings. A living coastline has natural barriers, vegetation and salt marshes that make it a stronger buffer, against flooding, but also moves and changes as any undeveloped shoreline would.

Obama Presidential Adviser, John Holdren, said of the challenge of climate change, “We will end up with a mix of prevention, adaptation and suffering. It is for us to determine the ration.” There are consequences of inaction!

Hard Structures vs. Soft Defenses Against Wave Energy

What we’ve done with much of our coastal lines to deter flooding is to construct impervious surfaces and blockages to dissipate the wave energy. But there are natural designs that absorb water from storms and channel it back into nature, creating spaces that navagate the water naturally.
The current method of deterring sea wave energy are hard structures. Hard structures, such as sea walls, deflect the wave energy to adjacent areas, redirecting the wave to a neighboring property. These properties witness a greater destructive energy than the original destination of the wave. Walls can fail and waves can erode sand at the base of the seawalls. Walls can also be destructive to the surrounding flora and fauna, which may be preventing a more serious flooding disaster. Hard structures won’t save our cities from rising seas!

The better approach according to Rachel Gittman, Ecologist, is to create living shorelines. A living shoreline is site specific according to the natural habitat of the location. She states that for calmer waters, build water absorbing marshes with sill-like ledges made of rocks, oyster shells or coconut fiber logs. A shoreline may also benefit from planting mangroves, which firmly anchor the shoreline in place.

Rising Seas

Cities affected by the rising waters.

Natural Barriers of Wave Energy

Steven Scyphers, Coastal Scientist, states, “It starts with a good understanding of what the natural conditions along the shoreline once were. It could mean restoring what existed on the shore, whether oyster reefs, coral reefs or other living breakers that can dissipate the wave energy. These natural barriers become more suitable over time as the plants, roots and reefs grow.”

By 2100, 490 communities could be chronically flooded including Boston, L.A. and most of NYC. Communities will have to decide what will be best for them, flood walls, living shorelines, elevating structures or to retreat. Cities that are below sea level probably won’t be benefited from natural shorelines.

In the meantime we need to change our behaviors to slow down climate change!

See us also on Facebook at: https://www.facebook.com/planetearthweekly/?ref=bookmarks


Leave a comment

Resource Depletion in Today’s World

Land degradation

Overpopulation drives land degradations

“Resource depletion is evidence of overpopulation and the need to limit growth.”

By Dr. John J. Hidore

September 9, 2017—-Resources used to sustain people includes a variety of elements in the environment. Some sort of resource depletion occurs in almost all types of environments.

Land Degradation

Land degradation has become widespread. Degradation can take many forms. Among these are erosion by water, erosion by wind, and chemical degradation. On a global basis erosion by water accounts for over 50% of total land degradation. Wind erosion accounts for another 30%, and chemical degradation the rest.

Soil Erosion

Soil Erosion is devastating to food growth.

Soil Erosion

Soil has been the basis in agriculture for thousands of years. Some of the most valuable land on the planet consists of land with the best soil for growing crops.

Soil erosion consists of the removal of soil material, the transportation and deposition of the material. Soil erosion is widespread. In some areas the erosion has been, and is so bad the land is no longer usable for agriculture.

In grasslands, where most intensive agriculture takes place, soil erosion is widespread. In the drier parts of the grasslands overgrazing is common. Desertification often results. This is the reduction of the land to essentially desert conditions.

Erosion

Land degradation effects food production.

Deforestation

Deforestation is another example of resource depletion. Vast areas of the tropical rainforest are disappearing rapidly. It is being cleared for agriculture primarily. The huge band of forest in the sub-Arctic is also disappearing. In this case the timber is being cut for lumber.

With the loss of the forest cover, soil erosion becomes pervasive. These forests are important to the climate of Earth as well as a means of livelihood for people. Once these resources are reduced or eliminated, overpopulation inevitably results.

Soil Erosion

Human Activity and Land Degradation

Declining Water Resources

Of the water on the planet, almost all of it is salt water (97.5%) found in the global ocean. Only about 0.5% exists as fresh water in the rivers and lakes on the land masses. The remaining 2% exists as ice in the polar ice caps and mountain glaciers.

The rivers on the planet are extensively degraded due to agricultural and industrial chemicals, urban runoff and human waste. The addition of chemicals and organic matter entering the oceans is changing the chemistry of the water especially in estuaries.

Overpopulation and Resource Depletion

Resource depletion is a substantial factor in growing overpopulation and the need to limit growth. Even without a growing population, resource depletion is, and will continue, to lower the carrying capacity of the planet.

Resource depletion joins population growth, and declining human health as crucial global trends that are now catastrophic in some regions. Don’t let profit prohibit the drive for action that will prevent further destruction of our planet!

Resource Depletion and Overpopulation

Follow Planet Earth Weekly on Facebook at: https://www.facebook.com/planetearthweekly/


Leave a comment

The Carbon Footprint of Air Conditioners

“The world’s supply of A/C units could increase from about 900 million in 2015 to roughly 1.6 billion by 2030.”

By Linn Smith

August 20, 2017—-If solar airplanes can fly, then maybe it’s time we look at solar for our air conditioning. According to a 2016 study at Berkeley National Laboratory, nations with emerging economies and spiking populations, including heavily populated India, are seeing air conditioner sales grow 10 to 15 percent a year.

What does the increase in air conditioning mean for our warming planet? The world’s supply of A/C units could increase from about 900 million in 2015 to roughly 1.6 billion by 2030. The Berkeley study says new technologies must take the place of hydroflourocarbons, (HFCs), found in most air conditioners. HFCs are growing rapidly in our atmosphere with a potential to increase the greenhouse effect faster than carbon dioxide, because they trap heat in our atmosphere at levels 1000 times greater than CO2.

Sierra Club

Sierra Club for Clean Air

Rwanda Climate Conference

In 2016, 200 nations gathered for the United Nations summit meeting on climate change. Negotiators created a deal to ban the use of HFCs in air conditioners and refrigerators, with finalization at the Kigali, Rwanda climate conference a few months later. 170 countries successfully negotiated an amendment to the Montreal protocol treaty to get rid of 90% of the HFCs. Developed counties will begin phasing out HFCs in 2019, China in 2024, and India and other counties in 2028.

Nearly all HFCs are made by a few giant western chemical companies, including Flame Guard USA in Illinois, GMC Aircon in South Africa, and OB-1 Air Analyses, Inc. in California.

building green

Cities, states and individuals must do their part in preventing climate change.

Reducing HFCs

The search is on for clean technologies to take the place of HFCs. In Australia, the Solar Hybrid Air Conditioner is offered by the company, EcoWorld. EcoWorld claims you can stay cool without the huge energy bill. This unit costs about $2700AU or $2000 U.S. dollars. You can see it at http://www.ecoworld.com.

They state:

1. Hands down this is the cheapest-to-run 3.5kW Split System Air Conditioner you can buy.
2. Stay Cool or Warm without the huge energy bills. Use it more often without regrets.
3. Pays for itself, in energy savings alone, within 7 months of running time.
4. Runs automatically between both Solar DC Power and 240V AC Mains.
5. 12000 BTU Performance without costing the earth.
6. As the sun goes down it transitions over to the mains power supply.
7. Comes with a 6 Year Australian Warranty when installed by a certified air conditioner installer.
8. Rated to cool or heat around 30-40 square meters.
9. Filters pollen particles from the air and can also dehumidify your space.
10. Helps to reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions back at the power station.
11. Highly efficient and feature packed 3.5kW split system inverter air conditioner.
12. Uses 1kW of solar panels (typically 4 x 250W panels in series).
13. When running together with the solar panels it uses as little as 30W of 240V AC mains power which is virtually nothing compared to standard air conditioners.

Can we wait until 2019, 2024 or 2028 to cut HFCs? Will it be too late? Now is the time to take a step towards saving our planet! New technologies must replace fossil fuels and chemicals, such as HFCs, that contaminate our atmosphere!

Reduce HFCs in our atmosphere.

Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/planetearthweekly/


1 Comment

The Galapagos UNESCO Heritage Site in Danger

Galapagos islands at risk from climate change

Home to many rare species of plants and animals

“In 2007 UNESCO listed the Galapagos as threatened, as a number of the most unusual creatures found on the islands were in decline.”

By Dr. John J. Hidore

August 11, 2017—-The Galapagos Islands are located about 600 miles west of the coast of Ecuador. There are 13 major islands in the group, in addition to dozens of smaller rock outcrops. They were discovered in 1535 by sailors engaged in exploration. These islands are a unique treasure on our Planet.

The Galapagos Islands have been designated a UNESCO Heritage Site. When explorers first described the islands to people on returning to their home ports, most people did not believe the stories that were told.

The Galapagos Islands are significant for a variety of reasons. First, there is no other island ecosystem like it. They are home to many species of plants and animals not found anyplace else on the planet. The animals include blue footed boobies and marine iguanas. Second, it is the setting for the work of Charles Darwin in formulating the theory of evolution that was published as The Origin of Species. Charles Darwin visited the islands in the year 1835. At the time, the islands were known as Las Encantatas or the enchanted ones.

Galapagos Islands and climate change

Galapagos animals and plants are at risk due to global warming.

Climate Change is Altering Life on the Islands

Global warming has already raised the temperatures over the islands. The islands generally receive little rainfall. Parts of the islands depend on cool season fog to provide condensation for plants. Additional warming may eliminate this weather pattern which is the only source of moisture for vegetation is some areas. Increased rainfall that may come with a changing climate may also lead to the decline in many species of plants.

The warmer conditions are causing vegetation zones to move to higher elevations. The rising temperature is also affecting the ratio of males to females in some turtles. Warmer temperatures tend to produce more female offspring, a phenomenon that has been observed at different locations around the world.

The mean temperature of the surrounding ocean of the islands is rising. Like other regions that lie astride the equator, coral bleaching has now been observed to occur in the reefs around the islands. The bleaching is an indication of not only global warming of the atmosphere, but of the warming of the tropical oceans. While corals live in warm water they will not live in water that is even a few degrees above their optimum temperature range. As the ocean warms they are also expected to become more acidic. This will increase the rate at which minerals are dissolved from the reefs.

Sea level has been rising and is expected to rise even more. The only question is how much more it will rise. Estimates of sea level rise by 2100 vary  with the highest estimates rising 30 inches. Rising sea level may destroy many of the mangrove forests which are home to some unique species of birds including some species of finch.

Galapagos Islands and climate

Galapagos Islands are at risk due to climate change

Invasive Species

There is a second problem which may be a greater threat than climate change to the uniqueness of the islands. This is the introduction of plants and animals not native to the islands. It is believed there are now more than 1400 introduced species on the islands of which more than half are plants.

Many of the introduce species have been accidentally introduced. Probably among the first were rats, which jumped ship over the years. The rats thrived and the population grew rapidly. Many other species of insects and plants were probably introduced at the same time. The accidental introduction continues as other species of plants and animals come to the islands along with the importing of merchandise.

Other species of plants and animals have been deliberately introduced. Among the first were domestic goats. They were often kept aboard ship for the purpose of supplying meat and milk for a ship’s crew. On the Galapagos some of the goats escaped to become wild. Their numbers increased and they began devastating the natural vegetation. In recent years major programs to eliminate the goats have been initiated, especially on the smaller islands. In 2006, for example, a massive effort was mounted to eliminate some introduced species from several islands.

Largely due to problems related to the invasion of species, in 2007 UNESCO listed the Galapagos as threatened, as a number of the most unusual creatures found on the islands were in decline. This includes sea lions which depend on a declining food supply off shore. The changing of the plant communities is a threat to many native birds. Some of the very species of finches which were the foundation of Darwin’s theory of evolution are in danger of becoming extinct.

On the plus side, most native species are expected to survive if invasive species can be controlled. But again, additional climate warming may eliminate the weather pattern necessary for plant and animal survival!

The Galapagos Islands

Follow us on Facebook at https://www.facebook.com/planetearthweekly/